How to format your references using the Languages citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Languages. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Costandi, M. Rehabilitation: Machine Recovery. Nature 2014, 510, S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawasaki, H.; Taira, K. Induction of DNA Methylation and Gene Silencing by Short Interfering RNAs in Human Cells. Nature 2004, 431, 211–217.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vandermeer, J.; Perfecto, I.; Philpott, S.M. Clusters of Ant Colonies and Robust Criticality in a Tropical Agroecosystem. Nature 2008, 451, 457–459.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Arnold, G.L.; Anbar, A.D.; Barling, J.; Lyons, T.W. Molybdenum Isotope Evidence for Widespread Anoxia in Mid-Proterozoic Oceans. Science 2004, 304, 87–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Palaveev, P. The Ensemble Practice; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2012; ISBN 9781118531914.
An edited book
Information Technologies and Mathematical Modelling - Queueing Theory and Applications: 14th International Scientific Conference, ITMM 2015, Named after A. F. Terpugov, Anzhero-Sudzhensk, Russia, November 18-22, 2015, Proceedings; Dudin, A., Nazarov, A., Yakupov, R., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 564; ISBN 9783319258607.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Makarov, S.; Ludwig, R.; Bitar, S.J. Circuit Analysis and Power Transfer. In Practical Electrical Engineering; Ludwig, R., Bitar, S.J., Eds.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; pp. 139–188 ISBN 9783319211725.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Languages.

Blog post
Luntz, S. Patagonia Proves Extinctions Down to Both Hunting And Climate Change Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Standards of Employee Conduct Need Improvement; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dimapilis, B. Service Line Extension: Acquisition of Fluoroscopy Equipment to Supplement Pain Management Procedures. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Goldstein, M.; Eder, S.; Kelly, K.; Stevenson, A.; Protess, B. Sources of Trump Aides’ Wealth Include Cosmetics and ‘Seinfeld’ Reruns. New York Times 2017, A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguages
ISSN (online)2226-471X

Other styles