How to format your references using the Language, Culture and Curriculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language, Culture and Curriculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Davies, K. (2015). Keep the directive that protects research animals. Nature, 521(7550), 7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Veillette, A., & Davidson, D. (2014). Immunology: When lymphocytes run out of steam. Nature, 510(7504), 222–223.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, M. A., Jin, D. Z., & Fee, M. S. (2010). Support for a synaptic chain model of neuronal sequence generation. Nature, 468(7322), 394–399.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
van der Wal, C. H., Eisaman, M. D., André, A., Walsworth, R. L., Phillips, D. F., Zibrov, A. S., & Lukin, M. D. (2003). Atomic memory for correlated photon states. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5630), 196–200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ocic, O. (2004). Oil Refineries in the 21st Century. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Guo, R., & Freeman, C. (Eds.). (2011). Managing Fragile Regions: Method and Application. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Verhagen, H. J. (2005). Classical, Innovative and Unconventional Coastline Protection Methods. In C. Zimmermann, R. G. Dean, V. Penchev, & H. J. Verhagen (Eds.), Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection Structures Varna, Bulgaria 25–27 May 2004 (pp. 57–71). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language, Culture and Curriculum.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, September 26). Indonesia Aims To Become The World Leader In Volcanically Generated Electricity. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Airline Competition: Pending Legislation Helps to Address Serious Competitive Problems (T-RCED-91-54). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pittsinger, R. F. (2009). The effect of a single bout of surfing on exercise-induced affect [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lovell, J. (2013, May 30). The World, Still Spinning. New York Times, MM36.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Davies, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Davies, 2015; Veillette & Davidson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Veillette & Davidson, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Long et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (van der Wal et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
AbbreviationLang. Cult. Curric.
ISSN (print)0790-8318
ISSN (online)1747-7573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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