How to format your references using the Language, Culture and Curriculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language, Culture and Curriculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nurse, P. (2004). Wee beasties. Nature, 432(7017), 557.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vermot, J., & Pourquié, O. (2005). Retinoic acid coordinates somitogenesis and left-right patterning in vertebrate embryos. Nature, 435(7039), 215–220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khush, R. S., Leulier, F., & Lemaitre, B. (2002). Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5566), 273–275.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
De Nadal, E., Zapater, M., Alepuz, P. M., Sumoy, L., Mas, G., & Posas, F. (2004). The MAPK Hog1 recruits Rpd3 histone deacetylase to activate osmoresponsive genes. Nature, 427(6972), 370–374.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Owen, J. S., & Fiedler-Kelly, J. (2014). Introduction to Population Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Analysis with Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Herrling, P. L., Matter, A., & Rudin, M. (Eds.). (2005). Imaging in Drug Discovery and Early Clinical Trials (Vol. 62). Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Golkar, S. (2015). Student Activism, Social Media, and Authoritarian Rule in Iran. In I. Epstein (Ed.), The Whole World is Texting: Youth Protest in the Information Age (pp. 61–79). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language, Culture and Curriculum.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, July 21). Why Can’t We Remember Our Early Childhood? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Space Shuttle: Follow-up Evaluation of NASA’s Solid Rocket Motor Procurement (NSIAD-89-89). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, D. M. (2010). Cutting a thorn: The cleansing function of female genital cutting [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2013, March 25). Pension Funds Wary as Bankrupt City Goes to Trial. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nurse, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Nurse, 2004; Vermot & Pourquié, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vermot & Pourquié, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Khush et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (De Nadal et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
AbbreviationLang. Cult. Curric.
ISSN (print)0790-8318
ISSN (online)1747-7573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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