How to format your references using the Language, Culture and Curriculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language, Culture and Curriculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chambers, S. A. (2014). Surface Science. Stability at the surface. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6214), 1186–1187.
A journal article with 2 authors
Singla, V., & Reiter, J. F. (2006). The primary cilium as the cell’s antenna: signaling at a sensory organelle. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5787), 629–633.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, D., Son, S.-W., & Jeong, H. (2014). Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts. Scientific Reports, 4, 7370.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gros, J., Manceau, M., Thomé, V., & Marcelle, C. (2005). A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells. Nature, 435(7044), 954–958.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Gorman, T. W. (2012). Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schrader, U., Fricke, V., Doyle, D., & Thoresen, V. W. (Eds.). (2013). Enabling Responsible Living. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baets, K. D., Landman, N. H., & Tanabe, K. (2015). Ammonoid Embryonic Development. In C. Klug, D. Korn, K. De Baets, I. Kruta, & R. H. Mapes (Eds.), Ammonoid Paleobiology: From anatomy to ecology (pp. 113–205). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language, Culture and Curriculum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, February 5). China’s Dinosaur Fossil Hotbed Caused By Pompeii-like Volcano. IFLScience; IFLScience.’s-dinosaur-fossil-hotbed-caused-pompeii-volcano/


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1986). Educating Deaf Students at Federally Assisted Postsecondary Schools (No. 129130). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hubbard, W. L. (2009). The perceptions of public school administrators toward technology effectiveness and adequacy in curriculum and instruction in the Golden Triangle Public Schools of Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, July 15). A Retail Internship. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chambers, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chambers, 2014; Singla & Reiter, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Singla & Reiter, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Kim et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gros et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
AbbreviationLang. Cult. Curric.
ISSN (print)0790-8318
ISSN (online)1747-7573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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