How to format your references using the Language, Culture and Curriculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language, Culture and Curriculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kondo, S. (2014). Developmental biology. Self-organizing somites. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6172), 736–737.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khosla, C., & Harbury, P. B. (2001). Modular enzymes. Nature, 409(6817), 247–252.
A journal article with 3 authors
Supèr, H., Spekreijse, H., & Lamme, V. A. (2001). A neural correlate of working memory in the monkey primary visual cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5527), 120–124.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Li, Y.-G., Ji, D.-F., Zhong, S., Lin, T.-B., Lv, Z.-Q., Hu, G.-Y., & Wang, X. (2013). 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits glucose absorption and accelerates glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Scientific Reports, 3, 1377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lawless, H. T. (2013). Quantitative Sensory Analysis. John Wiley & Sons.
An edited book
İnan, E., & Kırış, A. (Eds.). (2007). Vibration Problems ICOVP 2005 (Vol. 111). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Conklin, M. S. (2006). Beyond Low-Hanging Fruit: Seeking the Next Generation in FLOSS Data Mining. In E. Damiani, B. Fitzgerald, W. Scacchi, M. Scotto, & G. Succi (Eds.), Open Source Systems: IFIP Working Group 2.13 Foundation on Open Source Software, June 8–10, 2006, Como, Italy (pp. 47–56). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language, Culture and Curriculum.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2016, May 26). Dinosaur Extinction Extended To The Antarctic. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Questions Remain on the Costs, Uses, and Risks of the Redesigned Space Station (T-NSIAD-91-26). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bailey, S. M. (2008). Content Assessment in Intelligent Computer-Aided Language Learning: Meaning Error Diagnosis for English as a Second Language [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J. (2017, August 18). Updating DNA’s Life Story. New York Times, BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kondo, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Khosla & Harbury, 2001; Kondo, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khosla & Harbury, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Supèr et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Li et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
AbbreviationLang. Cult. Curric.
ISSN (print)0790-8318
ISSN (online)1747-7573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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