How to format your references using the Language, Culture and Curriculum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language, Culture and Curriculum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaspar, P. P. (2002). Silicon chemistry. R3Si+--free at last. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 785–786.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaser, A., & Blumberg, R. S. (2014). Cell biology: Stressful genetics in Crohn’s disease. Nature, 506(7489), 441–442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brisbin, I. L., Jr, Austad, S., & Jacobson, S. K. (2000). Canine detectives: the nose knows-or does it? Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5494), 1093b.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sukhishvili, S. A., Chen, Y., Muller, J. D., Gratton, E., Schweizer, K. S., & Granick, S. (2000). Materials science. Diffusion of a polymer “pancake.” Nature, 406(6792), 146.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tsai, C. S. (2006). Biomacromolecules. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liddle, S. W., Schewe, K.-D., Tjoa, A. M., & Zhou, X. (Eds.). (2012). Database and Expert Systems Applications: 23rd International Conference, DEXA 2012, Vienna, Austria, September 3-6, 2012. Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 7447). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Terhal, B. M. (2012). The Fragility of Quantum Information? In A.-H. Dediu, C. Martín-Vide, & B. Truthe (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Natural Computing: First International Conference, TPNC 2012, Tarragona, Spain, October 2-4, 2012. Proceedings (pp. 47–56). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language, Culture and Curriculum.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, June 6). Watch This Cyborg Dragonfly Drone Take Flight. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Review of Selected Aspects of the Bilingual Education Program (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Capelli, A. M. (2017). The (Un)Balanced Canon: Re-Visioning Feminist Conceptions of Madness and Transgression [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2006, January 16). Arts, Briefly; Home-Grown Films Are Booming in Russia. New York Times, E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaspar, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gaspar, 2002; Kaser & Blumberg, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kaser & Blumberg, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Brisbin et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sukhishvili et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage, Culture and Curriculum
AbbreviationLang. Cult. Curric.
ISSN (print)0790-8318
ISSN (online)1747-7573
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Linguistics and Language

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