How to format your references using the Language and Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gibney, E., 2014. How to tame the flood of literature. Nature 513, 129–130.
A journal article with 2 authors
Powrie, F., Maloy, K.J., 2003. Immunology. Regulating the regulators. Science 299, 1030–1031.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scherer, E., Munker, C., Mezger, K., 2001. Calibration of the lutetium-hafnium clock. Science 293, 683–687.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barnea, G., O’Donnell, S., Mancia, F., Sun, X., Nemes, A., Mendelsohn, M., Axel, R., 2004. Odorant receptors on axon termini in the brain. Science 304, 1468.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kenett, R.S., Zacks, S., Amberti, D., 2013. Modern Industrial Statistics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Kim, H. (Ed.), 2012. Advances in Technology and Management: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Technology and Management (ICTAM 2012), International Convention Center Jeju, Jeju-Island, Korea, Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Chan, S.C., 2014. Image-Based Rendering, in: Ikeuchi, K. (Ed.), Computer Vision: A Reference Guide. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 392–399.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Communication.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. Watch Live As Juno Enters Orbit Around Jupiter Tonight [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Mutual Funds: Assessment of Regulatory Reforms to Improve the Management and Sale of Mutual Funds (No. GAO-04-533T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson, J.D., 2001. The Jambalaya That is My Brain (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. M.T.A.’s $1 Million Prizes Are at End of the Tunnel. New York Times A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gibney, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Gibney, 2014; Powrie and Maloy, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Powrie and Maloy, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Barnea et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Communication
AbbreviationLang. Commun.
ISSN (print)0271-5309
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology
Linguistics and Language

Other styles