How to format your references using the Language and Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E., 2002. Call for cloning ban splits UN. Nature 416, 3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carbone, F.R., Gebhardt, T., 2014. Immunology. A neighborhood watch upholds local immune protection. Science 346, 40–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Denommee, K.C., Bentley, S.J., Droxler, A.W., 2014. Climatic controls on hurricane patterns: a 1200-y near-annual record from Lighthouse Reef, Belize. Sci. Rep. 4, 3876.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kendirlik, E.M., Sirt, S., Kalkan, S.B., Dietsche, W., Wegscheider, W., Ludwig, S., Siddiki, A., 2013. Anomalous resistance overshoot in the integer quantum Hall effect. Sci. Rep. 3, 3133.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaynor, G.H., 2014. Decisions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ritsner, M.S., Weizman, A. (Eds.), 2008. Neuroactive Steroids in Brain Function, Behavior and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: Novel Strategies for Research and Treatment. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Das, A., Roy, J., Chakrabarti, S., 2016. Are We ‘Learning By Doing’?, in: Roy, J., Chakraborti, S. (Eds.), Socio-Economic Analysis of Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in West Bengal, India Studies in Business and Economics. Springer, Singapore, pp. 19–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Communication.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015. Saber-Toothed Cat Canines Took Years to Grow [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Helium Program: Key Developments Since the Early 1990s and Future Considerations (No. GAO-10-700T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holler, J.C., 2015. A phenomenological case study of finding meaning through the developmental nature of a doctoral program in organization change (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, M.J., Benner, K., 2017. A Wardrobe by Mail. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Carbone and Gebhardt, 2014; Check, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carbone and Gebhardt, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kendirlik et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Communication
AbbreviationLang. Commun.
ISSN (print)0271-5309
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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