How to format your references using the Language and Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2003. Language lessons: Heidelberg. Nature 423, 364–365.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser, M.L., Gehling, J.G., 2008. Synchronous aggregate growth in an abundant new Ediacaran tubular organism. Science 319, 1660–1662.
A journal article with 3 authors
Angell, S.Y., Danel, I., DeCock, K.M., 2012. Global health. Global indicators and targets for noncommunicable diseases. Science 337, 1456–1457.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jiang, G., Giannone, G., Critchley, D.R., Fukumoto, E., Sheetz, M.P., 2003. Two-piconewton slip bond between fibronectin and the cytoskeleton depends on talin. Nature 424, 334–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anson, E.M., 2014. Alexander’s Heirs. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Parra-Montesinos, G.J., Reinhardt, H.W., Naaman, A.E. (Eds.), 2012. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 6: HPFRCC 6, RILEM State of the Art Reports. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Grazioli, L., Olivetti, L., Zappa, N., Apostolopoulos, E., 2009. Male Reproductive System: Normal Radiologic Anatomy, in: Grazioli, L., Olivetti, L. (Eds.), Imaging of Urogenital Diseases: A Color Atlas. Springer, Milano, pp. 47–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Communication.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. T. Rex Ants Seen Alive For First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program (No. GAO-05-752R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, B., 2017. An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L., 2007. Near Seattle, Tribal Casinos Lead to Even Bigger Bets. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Droser and Gehling, 2008; Smaglik, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Droser and Gehling, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Jiang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Communication
AbbreviationLang. Commun.
ISSN (print)0271-5309
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology
Linguistics and Language

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