How to format your references using the Language and Communication citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Language and Communication. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohman, T., 2009. Mathematics. Emergence of connectivity in networks. Science 323, 1438–1439.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kozlova, T., Thummel, C.S., 2003. Essential roles for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila mid-embryonic development. Science 301, 1911–1914.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jan, C.H., Williams, C.C., Weissman, J.S., 2015. LOCAL TRANSLATION. Response to Comment on “Principles of ER cotranslational translocation revealed by proximity-specific ribosome profiling.” Science 348, 1217.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Boström, K.J., de Lussanet, M.H.E., Weiss, T., Puta, C., Wagner, H., 2014. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci. Rep. 4, 5298.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Y., 2010. Practical Database Programming with Visual C#.NET. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Robertson, M.M. (Ed.), 2011. Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers: International Conference, EHAWC 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, W., Gordon, L.S., 2013. Mixed Modeling for Physician-Direct Campaigns, in: Hu, M., Liu, Y., Lin, J. (Eds.), Topics in Applied Statistics: 2012 Symposium of the International Chinese Statistical Association, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Language and Communication.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. Two Children in Every Class Start School With An Unexplained Language Disorder [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1982. Improvements Can Be Made in the Fiscal Management of CETA (No. HRD-82-53). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prather, M.R., 2010. Pink, blues, blacks, and the Union Jack: Mod’s reinterpretation of Britishness, 1962-1964 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J., 2017. Level Up. New York Times MM9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bohman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Bohman, 2009; Kozlova and Thummel, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kozlova and Thummel, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Boström et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleLanguage and Communication
AbbreviationLang. Commun.
ISSN (print)0271-5309
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
Social Psychology
Linguistics and Language

Other styles