How to format your references using the Land citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields, B.D. Cosmology. A Census of Cosmic Matter. Science 2001, 294, 529–530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reichenbach, A.; Pannicke, T. Neuroscience. A New Glance at Glia. Science 2008, 322, 693–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, L.; Koymen, A.R.; Mohanty, S.K. Crystalline Magnetic Carbon Nanoparticle Assisted Photothermal Delivery into Cells Using CW Near-Infrared Laser Beam. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5106.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Reddy, R.A.; Zhu, C.; Shao, R.; Korblova, E.; Gong, T.; Shen, Y.; Garcia, E.; Glaser, M.A.; Maclennan, J.E.; Walba, D.M.; et al. Spontaneous Ferroelectric Order in a Bent-Core Smectic Liquid Crystal of Fluid Orthorhombic Layers. Science 2011, 332, 72–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, M. Foundations of Forensic Document Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015; ISBN 9781118729922.
An edited book
Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained; Vujičić, M., Sanderson, J., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; ISBN 9783540746379.
A chapter in an edited book
Beigi, P.K.M.; Maverakis, E. Diagnosis. In Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: A Clinician’s Guide; Maverakis, E., Ed.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; pp. 43–53 ISBN 9783319178189.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land.

Blog post
Davis, J. New Frog Sex Position Observed In India Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Satellite Control Capabilities: National Policy Could Help Consolidation and Cost Savings; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, M. How Charter School Teachers Act on Perceived Autonomy: A Qualitative Study of Curricular Decisions. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J. A Would-Be Father of A.I. New York Times 2016, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLand
AbbreviationLand (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-445X

Other styles