How to format your references using the Land citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Broer, D.J. Applied Physics: A New View on Displays. Nature 2014, 511, 159–160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheridan, G.K.; Dev, K.K. Targeting S1P Receptors in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice Improves Early Deficits in Locomotor Activity and Increases Ultrasonic Vocalisations. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sugawara, T.; Kano, F.; Murata, M. Rab2A Is a Pivotal Switch Protein That Promotes Either Secretion or ER-Associated Degradation of (pro)Insulin in Insulin-Secreting Cells. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6952.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Munch, E.; Launey, M.E.; Alsem, D.H.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Ritchie, R.O. Tough, Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials. Science 2008, 322, 1516–1520.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C.A. Combinatorial Methods in Discrete Distributions: Charalambides/Combinatorial; Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005; ISBN 9780471733188.
An edited book
Neurovascular Events After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Towards Experimental and Clinical Standardisation; Fandino, J., Marbacher, S., Fathi, A.-R., Muroi, C., Keller, E., Eds.; Acta Neurochirurgica Supplement; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015; Vol. 120; ISBN 9783319049809.
A chapter in an edited book
Donnevert, G.; Uhlig, S.; Moser, T. Ring Test Data Evaluation. In Ecotoxicological Characterization of Waste: Results and Experiences of an International Ring Test; Moser, H., Römbke, J., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2009; pp. 47–60 ISBN 9780387889580.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land.

Blog post
Andrew, E. How World War II Spurred Vaccine Innovation (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Higher Education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Trends and the Role of Federal Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2006;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Griffin, M.G. The Lived Experience of First Line Managers during Planned Organizational Change: A Phenomenological Study of One Firm in the Residential Construction Industry. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University: Washington, DC, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu, L. Misleading Statements From President’s Cabinet. New York Times 2017, A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLand
AbbreviationLand (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-445X

Other styles