How to format your references using the Land citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yamamoto, Y. Semiconductor Physics. Half-Matter, Half-Light Amplifier. Nature 2000, 405, 629–630.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayden, L.A.; Watson, E.B. A Diffusion Mechanism for Core-Mantle Interaction. Nature 2007, 450, 709–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Volpe, G.; Volpe, G.; Gigan, S. Brownian Motion in a Speckle Light Field: Tunable Anomalous Diffusion and Selective Optical Manipulation. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 3936.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chiba, D.; Yamanouchi, M.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H. Electrical Manipulation of Magnetization Reversal in a Ferromagnetic Semiconductor. Science 2003, 301, 943–945.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Machner, H. Einführung in Die Kern- Und Elementarteilchenphysik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2005; ISBN 9783527662371.
An edited book
Cardiac Imaging in Electrophysiology; Auricchio, A., Singh, J., Rademakers, F.E., Eds.; Springer: London, 2012; ISBN 9781848824850.
A chapter in an edited book
Fitzclarence, L. Reflections on the Deakin Assemblage Of/For the Critical Project. In Education, Social Justice and the Legacy of Deakin University: Reflections of the Deakin Diaspora; Tinning, R., Sirna, K., Eds.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2011; pp. 41–52 ISBN 9789460916397.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Polar Bears Face Starvation And Cub Loss Due To Sea Ice Loss Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Programs and Overlapping Target Groups; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fino, M. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Exercise Practices of College Students of Color. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. Detainee Case Will Pose Delicate Question for Court. New York Times 2006, A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLand
AbbreviationLand (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-445X

Other styles