How to format your references using the Land citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nottebohm, F. Peter Marler (1928-2014). Nature 2014, 512, 372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwefel, H.G.L.; Türeci, H.E. Optics. A Chaotic Approach Clears up Imaging. Science 2015, 348, 189–190.
A journal article with 3 authors
González-Pastor, J.E.; Hobbs, E.C.; Losick, R. Cannibalism by Sporulating Bacteria. Science 2003, 301, 510–513.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ashikari, M.; Sakakibara, H.; Lin, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Takashi, T.; Nishimura, A.; Angeles, E.R.; Qian, Q.; Kitano, H.; Matsuoka, M. Cytokinin Oxidase Regulates Rice Grain Production. Science 2005, 309, 741–745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells, R. Global Credit Management; John Wiley & Sons Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2004; ISBN 9781118673300.
An edited book
Schmitt, A. Towards Adaptive Spoken Dialog Systems; Minker, W., Ed.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461445920.
A chapter in an edited book
Heinhuis, D.; de Vries, E.J. Modelling Customer Behaviour in Multi-channel Service Distribution. In Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance Industry: 4th International Workshop, FinanceCom 2008, Paris, France, December 13, 2008. Revised Papers; Kundisch, D., Veit, D.J., Weitzel, T., Weinhardt, C., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009; pp. 47–63 ISBN 9783642011962.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land.

Blog post
Andrew, E. We’re Only Just Starting To Understand The Side-Effects Of Driverless Cars (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office NASA: Medium Launch Transition Strategy Leverages Ongoing Investments but Is Not Without Risk; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2010;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamanna, S.G. Colombian Spanish in North Carolina: The Role of Language and Dialect Contact in the Formation of a New Variety of U.S. Spanish. Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University: Bloomington, IN, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. Start of Chiefs-Steelers Game Moved to Sunday Night. New York Times 2017, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLand
AbbreviationLand (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-445X

Other styles