How to format your references using the Land citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Land. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spiegel, F.W. Evolution. Contemplating the first Plantae. Science 2012, 335, 809–810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemphill, C.S.; Sampat, B. Intellectual property. Drug patents at the Supreme Court. Science 2013, 339, 1386–1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuljapurkar, S.; Li, N.; Boe, C. A universal pattern of mortality decline in the G7 countries. Nature 2000, 405, 789–792.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Williams, T.F.; Mirando, A.C.; Wilkinson, B.; Francklyn, C.S.; Lounsbury, K.M. Secreted Threonyl-tRNA synthetase stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bauldry, W.C. Introduction to Real Analysis; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9781118164419.
An edited book
Distance Geometry: Theory, Methods, and Applications; Mucherino, A., Lavor, C., Liberti, L., Maculan, N., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2013; ISBN 9781461451273.
A chapter in an edited book
Kühn, T.; Paraoanu, G.S. Electronic and Thermal Sequential Transport in Metallic and Superconducting Two-Junction Arrays. In Trends in Nanophysics: Theory, Experiment and Technology; Bârsan, V., Aldea, A., Eds.; Engineering Materials; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; pp. 99–131 ISBN 9783642120695.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Land.

Blog post
Taub, B. Man Missing Most Of His Brain Challenges Everything We Thought We Knew About Consciousness Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Information Technology Cost Estimation: Agencies Need to Address Significant Weaknesses in Policies and Practices; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crawford, M.J. Empire’s experts: The politics of knowledge in Spain’s royal monopoly of quina (1751–1808). Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego: La Jolla, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lavin, L. I Sang in New York. New York Times 2017, AR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleLand
AbbreviationLand (Basel)
ISSN (online)2073-445X

Other styles