How to format your references using the Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Dillon, N. Gene autonomy: positions, please. Nature 425, 457 (2003).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Marks, C. O. & Muller-Landau, H. C. Comment on ‘From plant traits to plant communities: a statistical mechanistic approach to biodiversity’. Science 316, 1425; author reply 1425 (2007).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Xiao, Y., Wang, Y. & Felleman, D. J. A spatially organized representation of colour in macaque cortical area V2. Nature 421, 535–539 (2003).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1.
Liao, S.-H. et al. Single junction inverted polymer solar cell reaching power conversion efficiency 10.31% by employing dual-doped zinc oxide nano-film as cathode interlayer. Sci. Rep. 4, 6813 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Sarisky, D. Scriptural Interpretation. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2012).
An edited book
1.
Robotics and Cognitive Approaches to Spatial Mapping. 38, (Springer, 2008).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Rodrigues, E. R. & Achcar, J. A. Some Counting Processes and Ozone Air Pollution. in Applications of Discrete-time Markov Chains and Poisson Processes to Air Pollution Modeling and Studies (ed. Achcar, J. A.) 79–89 (Springer, 2013).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, E. New Blood Test Could Diagnose Depression. IFLScience (2014).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing: EFT 99 Is Not Expected to Affect Year 2000 Remediation Efforts. (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
McPherson, C. A. Characterization of the neurogenic microenvironment in the mouse hippocampus following chemical-induced neuronal injury. (University of North Carolina, 2012).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hogan, S. How I Found Love and Companionship Online. New York Times ST12 (2013).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaboratory Investigation
AbbreviationLab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0023-6837
ISSN (online)1530-0307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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