How to format your references using the Laboratory Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Laboratory Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Shen, H. Interactive notebooks: Sharing the code. Nature 515, 151–152 (2014).
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Ricardo, S. & Lehmann, R. An ABC transporter controls export of a Drosophila germ cell attractant. Science 323, 943–946 (2009).
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bernevig, B. A., Hughes, T. L. & Zhang, S.-C. Quantum spin Hall effect and topological phase transition in HgTe quantum wells. Science 314, 1757–1761 (2006).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
1.
Yang, S. et al. One-pot synthesis of graphene-supported monodisperse Pd nanoparticles as catalyst for formic acid electro-oxidation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4501 (2014).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Ryan, T. P. Statistical Methods for Quality Improvement: Ryan/Quality Improvement 3E. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).
An edited book
1.
Collective Responsibility: Redefining What Falls Between the Cracks for School Reform. (SensePublishers, 2012).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wang, X. & Wang, R. Co-presence in Mixed Reality-Mediated Collaborative Design Space. in Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments (eds. Wang, X. & Tsai, J. J.-H.) 51–64 (Springer Netherlands, 2011).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Laboratory Investigation.

Blog post
1.
Andrew, D. American Astronauts Drink Their Pee - But Russians Refuse. IFLScience https://www.iflscience.com/space/american-astronauts-drink-eachother-pee-russians-refuse/ (2015).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Comments on the Proposed Cyber Security Information Act of 2000. (2000).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Knoth, K. C. Biological Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Examination of an Introductory Level Implementation. (Southern Illinois University, 2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey, G. World Cup Draw Portends More Peril Than Promise. New York Times B12 (2009).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleLaboratory Investigation
AbbreviationLab. Invest.
ISSN (print)0023-6837
ISSN (online)1530-0307
ScopeCell Biology
Molecular Biology
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles