How to format your references using the Knowledge-Based Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Knowledge-Based Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Hoag, Chemists’ salaries turn south, Nature. 422 (2003) 650.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Bianchi, D. Shore, Molecular biology. Refined view of the ends, Science. 320 (2008) 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Z. Yan, M. Cai, P.K. Shen, Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1646.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Guo, T. Winzer, X. Yang, Y. Li, Z. Ning, Z. He, R. Teodor, Y. Lu, T.A. Bowser, I.A. Graham, K. Ye, The opium poppy genome and morphinan production, Science. 362 (2018) 343–347.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Chartered Institute of Building, Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
J.C. Setubal, S. Verjovski-Almeida, eds., Advances in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology: Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2005, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil, July 27-29, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
L.-O. Reiersen, S. Wilson, The Arctic – a Sentinel for Environmental Processes and Effects, in: S. Wasum-Rainer, I. Winkelmann, K. Tiroch (Eds.), Arctic Science, International Law and Climate Change: Legal Aspects of Marine Science in the Arctic Ocean, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 15–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Knowledge-Based Systems.

Blog post
R. Andrews, How To Destroy A Galaxy, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, DOD’s Automated Telecommunications Centers Reduce the Impact of Message Volume on Staffing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.S. Eller, Social media as avenue for personal learning for educators: Personal learning networks encourage application of knowledge and skills, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Seymour, How About a Nightcap?, New York Times. (2015) BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKnowledge-Based Systems
AbbreviationKnowl. Based Syst.
ISSN (print)0950-7051
ScopeManagement Information Systems
Artificial Intelligence
Information Systems and Management

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