How to format your references using the Knowledge and Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Knowledge and Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kramer M (2009) Astronomy. Extreme spinning tops. Science 324:1396–1397
A journal article with 2 authors
Gweon H, Schulz L (2011) 16-month-olds rationally infer causes of failed actions. Science 332:1524
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang Y, Dong Y, Chawla NV (2014) Predicting node degree centrality with the node prominence profile. Sci Rep 4:7236
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Fujisawa T, Hayashi T, Tomita R, Hirayama Y (2006) Bidirectional counting of single electrons. Science 312:1634–1636

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Radzevich SP (2013) Geometry of Surfaces. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Göhner JF, Jung E-M (2016) Susan Haack: Reintegrating Philosophy, 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Granada MA (2011) Johannes Kepler and David Fabricius: Their Discussion on the Nova of 1604. In: Boner PJ (ed) Change and Continuity in Early Modern Cosmology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 67–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Knowledge and Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) New Fossil Evidence Suggests There Have Been 6 Mass Extinctions, Not 5. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Telecommunications: 1991 Survey of Cable Television Rates and Services. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaegel BM (2012) An Evaluation of the School-wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Check In/Check Out Behavior Education Program. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Victor D (2017) Dismissed Breitbart Editor Blames Anti-Muslim Tweets. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKnowledge and Information Systems
AbbreviationKnowl. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0219-1377
ISSN (online)0219-3116
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Hardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Information Systems

Other styles