How to format your references using the Knowledge and Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Knowledge and Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott A (2000) Hunt for Higgs particle wins time for CERN collider. Nature 407:276
A journal article with 2 authors
Bork P, Copley R (2001) Genome speak. Nature 409:815
A journal article with 3 authors
Webber BL, Le Maitre DC, Kriticos DJ (2012) Comment on “Climatic niche shifts are rare among terrestrial plant invaders.” Science 338:193; author reply 193
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kim JY, Lee K, Coates NE, et al (2007) Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing. Science 317:222–225

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aichinger M, Binder A (2013) A Workout in Computational Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Lim T-H (2015) Practical Textbook of Cardiac CT and MRI. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Blankenship J, Bussa M, Millett S (2011) Sprint 1: Starting a Game. In: Bussa M, Millett S (eds) Pro Agile .NET Development with Scrum. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 87–133

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Knowledge and Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Scientists Discover Enormous Sea Scorpion. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Information Resources: Management Improvements Essential for Key Agriculture Automated Systems. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith T (2012) Outsider leadership transitions: A phenomenological study of Army Reserve General Officers. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J (2017) Defying Roadblocks, Silicon Valley Tests a Flying Car. New York Times B1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKnowledge and Information Systems
AbbreviationKnowl. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0219-1377
ISSN (online)0219-3116
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Hardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Information Systems

Other styles