How to format your references using the Knowledge and Information Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Knowledge and Information Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kinlen L (2005) Obituary: Richard Doll (1912-2005). Nature 438:41
A journal article with 2 authors
Sato M, Toda T (2007) Alp7/TACC is a crucial target in Ran-GTPase-dependent spindle formation in fission yeast. Nature 447:334–337
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo D, Knight TE, McCusker JK (2011) Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer. Science 334:1684–1687
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mihola O, Trachtulec Z, Vlcek C, et al (2009) A mouse speciation gene encodes a meiotic histone H3 methyltransferase. Science 323:373–375

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iyengar SS, Parameshwaran N, Phoha VV, et al (2010) Fundamentals of Sensor Network Programming. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Li F (2011) Euclidean Shortest Paths: Exact or Approximate Algorithms. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Nevado LS i., Portaankorva-Koivisto P, Pehkonen E, et al (2015) Chilean and Finnish Teachers’ Conceptions on Mathematics Teaching. In: Bernack-Schüler C, Erens R, Leuders T, Eichler A (eds) Views and Beliefs in Mathematics Education: Results of the 19th MAVI Conference. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp 43–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Knowledge and Information Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Australian PM Bans Solar And Wind Power Investment. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Special Education: The Attorney Fees Provision of Public Law 99-372. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee S (2005) The Influence of Product Involvement and Fan Identification on Response to Team Sponsors’ Products. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR (2017) U.S.-Russia Hotline Buzzes Even After Strike on Syria. New York Times A9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleKnowledge and Information Systems
AbbreviationKnowl. Inf. Syst.
ISSN (print)0219-1377
ISSN (online)0219-3116
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Hardware and Architecture
Human-Computer Interaction
Information Systems

Other styles