How to format your references using the Justice Quarterly citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Justice Quarterly. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Bricks & mortar. Nature, 430(6997), 384.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leeb, M., & Wutz, A. (2011). Derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells from mouse embryos. Nature, 479(7371), 131–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
Galli, S. J., Tsai, M., & Piliponsky, A. M. (2008). The development of allergic inflammation. Nature, 454(7203), 445–454.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Barthe, C., Cony-Makhoul, P., Melo, J. V., & Mahon, J. R. (2001). Roots of clinical resistance to STI-571 cancer therapy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5538), 2163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vento, J. J. (2013). Financial Independence (Getting to Point X ). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ramanathan, S. (Ed.). (2010). Thin Film Metal-Oxides: Fundamentals and Applications in Electronics and Energy. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Gussone, N., & Heuser, A. (2016). Biominerals and Biomaterial. In A.-D. Schmitt, A. Heuser, F. Wombacher, M. Dietzel, E. Tipper, & M. Schiller (Eds.), Calcium Stable Isotope Geochemistry (pp. 111–144). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Justice Quarterly.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, February 17). Scientists Need Your Brains, No Seriously. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Methodology Used in Lease-Versus-Purchase Decision for Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (No. LCD-76-127). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walsh, E. F. (2010). The development of comprehensive criminal justice leadership standards: A modified Delphi study approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L. (2014, March 13). Greasing a Squeaky Wheel. New York Times, p. D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Leeb & Wutz, 2011; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leeb & Wutz, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Galli, Tsai, & Piliponsky, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Barthe, Cony-Makhoul, Melo, & Mahon, 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJustice Quarterly
AbbreviationJustice Q.
ISSN (print)0741-8825
ISSN (online)1745-9109
ScopePathology and Forensic Medicine

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