How to format your references using the JPRAS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JPRAS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Savage N. Early detection: Spotting the first signs. Nature. 2011;471(7339):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Murayama Y, Uhlmann F. Biochemical reconstitution of topological DNA binding by the cohesin ring. Nature. 2014;505(7483):367-371.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Moyen J-F, Stevens G, Kisters A. Record of mid-Archaean subduction from metamorphism in the Barberton terrain, South Africa. Nature. 2006;442(7102):559-562.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Egea PF, Shan S-O, Napetschnig J, Savage DF, Walter P, Stroud RM. Substrate twinning activates the signal recognition particle and its receptor. Nature. 2004;427(6971):215-221.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Scott DW. Color Atlas of Farm Animal Dermatology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1.
Simmons K. Pro SQL Server 2012 Administration. (Carstarphen S, ed.). Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lopes A, Oliveira S, Fragoso M, Andrade JA, Pedro P. Wind Risk Assessment in Urban Environments: The Case of Falling Trees During Windstorm Events in Lisbon. In: Střelcová K, Mátyás C, Kleidon A, et al., eds. Bioclimatology and Natural Hazards. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009:55-74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JPRAS Open.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Astronomers Solve Supernova Mystery. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/space/cold-case-hydrogen-thief-identified/. Published September 28, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Implementation of the Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dutta A. Systems optimization for mobility management. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Vecsey G. Tuning Up to Do the Super Bowl Shovel. New York Times. December 28, 2010:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJPRAS Open
AbbreviationJPRAS Open
ISSN (print)2352-5878
Scope

Other styles