How to format your references using the JPRAS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JPRAS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith C. Genomics: big tasks for small molecules. Nature. 2005;435(7044):991.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doebeli M, Ispolatov I. Complexity and diversity. Science. 2010;328(5977):494-497.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gavriil FP, Kaspi VM, Woods PM. Magnetar-like X-ray bursts from an anomalous X-ray pulsar. Nature. 2002;419(6903):142-144.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang C, Yu S, Chen W, Sun C. Highly efficient light-trapping structure design inspired by natural evolution. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1025.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paschedag AR. CFD in Der Verfahrenstechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2004.
An edited book
Hefley WE, Wang Y, eds. Economics of Unconventional Shale Gas Development: Case Studies and Impacts. Vol 45. Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Francq C, Zakoïan JM. A Tour in the Asymptotic Theory of GARCH Estimation. In: Mikosch T, Kreiß JP, Davis RA, Andersen TG, eds. Handbook of Financial Time Series. Springer; 2009:85-111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JPRAS Open.

Blog post
Hamilton K. “Scratching” Sounds A Woman Heard Were Caused By Spider Living In Her Ear. IFLScience. Published October 1, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gas Pipeline Safety: Preliminary Observations on the Integrity Management Program and 7-Year Reassessment Requirement. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Short DD. Assessing Effectiveness and Economic Efficiency in California Community College Transfer Advising. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. 13 Hospitals to Remove Trans Fats From Meals. New York Times. December 3, 2006:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJPRAS Open
AbbreviationJPRAS Open
ISSN (print)2352-5878

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