How to format your references using the JPRAS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JPRAS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willems J. Bringing down the barriers. Nature. 2003;422(6931):470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Suter DM, Schibler U. Physiology. Feeding the clock. Science. 2009;326(5951):378-379.
A journal article with 3 authors
Changela A, DiGate RJ, Mondragón A. Crystal structure of a complex of a type IA DNA topoisomerase with a single-stranded DNA molecule. Nature. 2001;411(6841):1077-1081.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bishop JKB, Wood TJ, Davis RE, Sherman JT. Robotic observations of enhanced carbon biomass and export at 55 degrees during SOFeX. Science. 2004;304(5669):417-420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard TE, Marshall SD, Bonner LL. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Oliveira LB. Analysis and Design of Quadrature Oscillators. (Fernandes JR, Filanovsky IM, Verhoeven CJM, Silva MM, eds.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Sousedík* B, Mandel† J. On Adaptive-Multilevel BDDC. In: Huang Y, Kornhuber R, Widlund O, Xu J, eds. Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XIX. Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011:39-50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JPRAS Open.

Blog post
Evans K. We Don’t Need To Cut Down Forests To Produce More Food, Says UN Report. IFLScience. Published July 19, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Payments by DOD for Contractors’ Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mickels BJ. A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Reaching a U.S. Apex, With a Bronze Medal in Tow. New York Times. August 20, 2016:SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJPRAS Open
AbbreviationJPRAS Open
ISSN (print)2352-5878

Other styles