How to format your references using the JPRAS Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for JPRAS Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbert N. Who speaks for science in Europe? Nature. 2009;460(7256):672-673.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pelton JN, Logsdon J. Retrospective. Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008). Science. 2008;320(5873):189.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horsewill AJ, Jones NH, Caciuffo R. Evidence for coherent proton tunneling in a hydrogen bond network. Science. 2001;291(5501):100-103.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ekimov EA, Sidorov VA, Bauer ED, et al. Superconductivity in diamond. Nature. 2004;428(6982):542-545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levitin V. High Temperature Strain of Metals and Alloys. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Minker W, Bühler D, Dybkjær L, eds. Spoken Multimodal Human-Computer Dialogue in Mobile Environments. Vol 28. Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Orellana-Escobedo L, Korban SS, Rosales-Mendoza S. Seed-Based Expression Strategies. In: Rosales-Mendoza S, ed. Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View. Springer; 2014:79-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for JPRAS Open.

Blog post
Evans K. Architects Create Free DIY Sustainable “Indoor Garden” For Urban Living. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Inquiry About the Office of Telecommunications Policy. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Narayanan BC. Structure function diversity within the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily as revealed by the enzymes oxaloacetate decarboxylase and 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Kielbasa Kingdom. New York Times. December 5, 2010:NJ13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJPRAS Open
AbbreviationJPRAS Open
ISSN (print)2352-5878

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