How to format your references using the Journal of Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sethna, James P. 2007. “Materials Science. Crackling Wires.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5848): 207–208.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aldecoa, Rodrigo, and Ignacio Marín. 2013. “Surprise Maximization Reveals the Community Structure of Complex Networks.” Scientific Reports 3 (January): 1060.
A journal article with 3 authors
Burghes, A. H., H. E. Vaessin, and A. de La Chapelle. 2001. “Genetics. The Land between Mendelian and Multifactorial Inheritance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5538): 2213–2214.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Mineur, Yann S., Alfonso Abizaid, Yan Rao, Ramiro Salas, Ralph J. DiLeone, Daniela Gündisch, Sabrina Diano, et al. 2011. “Nicotine Decreases Food Intake through Activation of POMC Neurons.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 332 (6035): 1330–1332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pagliaro, Louis A., and Ann Marie Pagliaro. 2011. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Drug and Substance Abuse. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ikeda, Mitsuru, Kevin D. Ashley, and Tak-Wai Chan, eds. 2006. Intelligent Tutoring Systems: 8th International Conference, ITS 2006, Jhongli, Taiwan, June 26-30, 2006. Proceedings. Vol. 4053. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Subramanya Rao, Srinivasa Rao. 2016. “Three Dimensional Montgomery Ladder, Differential Point Tripling on Montgomery Curves and Point Quintupling on Weierstrass’ and Edwards Curves.” In Progress in Cryptology – AFRICACRYPT 2016: 8th International Conference on Cryptology in Africa, Fes, Morocco, April 13-15, 2016, Proceedings, edited by David Pointcheval, Abderrahmane Nitaj, and Tajjeeddine Rachidi, 84–106. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Youth Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “New Image Reveals Violent Collision of Galaxies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Aircraft Maintenance: Additional FAA Oversight Needed of Aging Aircraft Repairs (Vol. II). RCED-91-91B. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aguirre, Iris. 2009. “Policy Analysis of the Foster Care Independence Act of 1999.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, James C., Jr. 2017. “Man’s Murder Conviction Set Aside at D.A.’s Request.” New York Times, April 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamann 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cavalli 2012; Samarasekera 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Aldecoa and Marín 2013)
  • Three authors: (Burghes, Vaessin, and de La Chapelle 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ma et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Youth Studies
AbbreviationJ. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1367-6261
ISSN (online)1469-9680
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles