How to format your references using the Journal of Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ruddiman, William F. 2006. “Retrospective. Nicholas J. Shackleton (1937-2006).” Science (New York, N.Y.) 312 (5774): 711.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero-Sedas, María I., and Miguel A. Vega-Palas. 2014. “Determination of Arabidopsis Thaliana Telomere Length by PCR.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5540.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hayashi, Katsuhiko, Susana M. Chuva de Sousa Lopes, and M. Azim Surani. 2007. “Germ Cell Specification in Mice.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5823): 394–396.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wall, Simon, Shan Yang, Luciana Vidas, Matthieu Chollet, James M. Glownia, Michael Kozina, Tetsuo Katayama, et al. 2018. “Ultrafast Disordering of Vanadium Dimers in Photoexcited VO2.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 362 (6414): 572–576.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitajima, Munéo. 2016. Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lovat, Terence. 2011. Values Pedagogy and Student Achievement: Contemporary Research Evidence. Edited by Kerry Dally, Neville Clement, and Ron Toomey. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Dolan, Elizabeth M., Jean W. Bauer, and Mary Jo Katras. 2011. “Making Rural Employment Work.” In Rural Families and Work: Context and Problems, edited by Jean W. Bauer and Elizabeth M. Dolan, 55–76. International Series on Consumer Science. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Youth Studies.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “You Can Now Take A Driverless Uber In The US.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Lack of Accountability for Computer Equipment Leaves These Assets Vulnerable to Loss or Misappropriation. GAO-04-520R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Emerson, Jason Daniel. 2001. “The Jambalaya That Is My Brain.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feldstein, Martin S., Ted Halstead, and N. Gregory Mankiw. 2017. “A Conservative Case for Climate Action.” New York Times, February 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ruddiman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ruddiman 2006; Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaquero-Sedas and Vega-Palas 2014)
  • Three authors: (Hayashi, de Sousa Lopes, and Surani 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wall et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Youth Studies
AbbreviationJ. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1367-6261
ISSN (online)1469-9680
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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