How to format your references using the Journal of Youth Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Youth Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dolan, R. J. 2002. “Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5596): 1191–1194.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ruths, Derek, and Jürgen Pfeffer. 2014. “Social Sciences. Social Media for Large Studies of Behavior.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6213): 1063–1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, Minsoo, Christopher V. Carman, and Timothy A. Springer. 2003. “Bidirectional Transmembrane Signaling by Cytoplasmic Domain Separation in Integrins.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5640): 1720–1725.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Abramson, Jeff, Irina Smirnova, Vladimir Kasho, Gillian Verner, H. Ronald Kaback, and So Iwata. 2003. “Structure and Mechanism of the Lactose Permease of Escherichia Coli.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5633): 610–615.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pischella, Mylène, and Didier Le Ruyet. 2015. Digital Communications 2. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Miri, Seyed Javad, Robert Lake, and Tricia M. Kress, eds. 2014. Reclaiming the Sane Society: Essays on Erich Fromm’s Thought. Imagination and Praxis, Criticality and Creativity in Education and Educational Research. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Foucaud, Florent, and Matjaž Kovše. 2012. “On Graph Identification Problems and the Special Case of Identifying Vertices Using Paths.” In Combinatorial Algorithms: 23rd International Workshop, IWOCA 2012, Tamil Nadu, India, July 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, edited by S. Arumugam and W. F. Smyth, 32–45. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Youth Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “No, Johns Hopkins Did Not Release An ‘Update’ Revealing The ‘Truth’ About Cancer.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. DOE Loan Programs: DOE Has Made More Than $30 Billion in Loans and Guarantees and Needs to Fully Develop Its Loan Monitoring Function. GAO-14-645T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moody, Vernice J. 2012. “Examining Leadership Styles and Employee Engagement in the Public and Private Sectors.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Message To Einhorn: Pay Reyes.” New York Times, June 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dolan 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Dolan 2002; Ruths and Pfeffer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ruths and Pfeffer 2014)
  • Three authors: (Kim, Carman, and Springer 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Abramson et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Youth Studies
AbbreviationJ. Youth Stud.
ISSN (print)1367-6261
ISSN (online)1469-9680
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Sociology and Political Science
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles