How to format your references using the Chest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Bernstein R. Improving student advising. Science 2015;350(6261):710.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Mariani FV, Martin GR. Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb. Nature 2003;423(6937):319–325.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Bishop JKB, Davis RE, Sherman JT. Robotic observations of dust storm enhancement of carbon biomass in the North Pacific. Science 2002;298(5594):817–821.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Kubo K-I, Entani T, Takara A, et al. Collaborative non-self recognition system in S-RNase-based self-incompatibility. Science 2010;330(6005):796–799.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Lieser KH. Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2007.
An edited book
1.
Letschert R, Dijk J van, editors. The New Faces of Victimhood: Globalization, Transnational Crimes and Victim Rights. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Wang R, Yan Y, Tan B. Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Force-Free Field Reconstruction of Solar Active Region 11158 by Direct Boundary Integral Equation. In: Tomczyk S, Zhang J, Bastian T, editors. Coronal Magnetometry. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 45–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chest.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. X-rays Brighter than a Million Suns Illuminate Ancient Plant Structures [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/x-rays-brighter-million-suns-illuminate-ancient-plant-structures/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Procedures To Safeguard Social Security Beneficiary Records Can and Should Be Improved. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vespa MC. System Identification and Compensation Using a Surface-Bristle Deflection Model. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Quain JR. Self-Driving Cars Might Need Standards, but Whose? New York Times. 2017;B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChest
AbbreviationChest
ISSN (print)0012-3692
ISSN (online)1931-3543
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles