How to format your references using the Chest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Carr AM. Checking that replication breakdown is not terminal. Science 2002;297(5581):557–558.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hagoort P, Levelt WJM. Neuroscience. The speaking brain. Science 2009;326(5951):372–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Matthews AJ, Singhruck P, Heywood KJ. Deep ocean impact of a Madden-Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats. Science 2007;318(5857):1765–1769.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Jia Q, Liu Y, Liu H, Li S. Mmp1 and Mmp2 cooperatively induce Drosophila fat body cell dissociation with distinct roles. Sci Rep 2014;4:7535.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Wempen F. Microsoft® PowerPoint® 2010 Bible. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1.
Das KN, Deep K, Pant M, Bansal JC, Nagar A, editors. Proceedings of Fourth International Conference on Soft Computing for Problem Solving: SocProS 2014, Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Lu MQ, Qiao Y, Lu ED, Tan Y. Guidance for Application Materials/Booklets (Chemical). In: Lu MQ, editor. Approaching China’s Pharmaceutical Market: A Fundamental Guide to Clinical Drug Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 329–434.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chest.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. No, Sunscreen Will Not Give You Cancer [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/no-sunscreen-will-not-give-you-cancer/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Offshoring: U.S. Semiconductor and Software Industries Increasingly Produce in China and India. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Wang E. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Investigation of the Coyote Mountain Shear Zone. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Pennington B. After the Heisman, a Long, Lonely Slide. New York Times. 2016;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChest
AbbreviationChest
ISSN (print)0012-3692
ISSN (online)1931-3543
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles