How to format your references using the Chest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Thompson JN. Evolution. The role of coevolution. Science 2012;335(6067):410–411.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Canadell JG, Raupach MR. Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 2008;320(5882):1456–1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Liu W, Pellegrini M, Wang X. Detecting communities based on network topology. Sci Rep 2014;4:5739.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Nielsen MA, Dowling MR, Gu M, Doherty AC. Quantum computation as geometry. Science 2006;311(5764):1133–1135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Brown H, Prescott R. Applied Mixed Models in Medicine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Jin D, Lin S, editors. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication: Volume 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Håkonsson DD, Obel B, Burton RM. Rational Emotionality: Integrating Emotions into Psychological Climate. In: Burton RM, Eriksen B, Håkonsson DD, Knudsen T, Snow CC, editors. Designing Organizations: 21st Century Approaches. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 59–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chest.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Male Spiders Can Detect Female Promiscuity [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/male-spiders-can-detect-female-promiscuity/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Emergency Communications: National Communications System Provides Programs for Priority Calling, but Planning for New Initiatives and Performance Measurement Could be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Christian TM. Under the Navajo stars: The intersection of mythic narratives, archaeology, and star ceilings. 2012;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Shpigel B. How Johnson Might Balance Ambassadorship and the Jets. New York Times. 2017;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleChest
AbbreviationChest
ISSN (print)0012-3692
ISSN (online)1931-3543
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Other styles