How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis J. 2000 RESEARCH POLICY: Report Tracks Federal Funding in Each State. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5474), 2115b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huber K. E., Waldor M. K. 2002 Filamentous phage integration requires the host recombinases XerC and XerD. Nature, 417(6889), 656–659.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bradley J., Reuter D., Frings S. 2001 Facilitation of calmodulin-mediated odor adaptation by cAMP-gated channel subunits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2176–2178.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ioffe L. B., Feigel’man M. V., Ioselevich A., Ivanov D., Troyer M., Blatter G. 2002 Topologically protected quantum bits using Josephson junction arrays. Nature, 415(6871), 503–506.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bill Huitt W. M. 2016 Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
Symonds M. E. (Ed.) 2012 Adipose Tissue Biology. Springer, New York, NY, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Cortiana F. 2013 Le informazioni e l’equilibrio dinamico dell’ecosistema. In: Il senso ritrovato, E. Laszlo & P. M. Biava (eds.). Springer, Milano, pp. 63–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015, June 30 Is Depression a Mental or Physical Illness? Unravelling the Inflammation Hypothesis. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1973 Effective Central Control Could Improve DOD’s Ammunition Logistics (No. B-176139). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dill K. D. 2012 Nonparametric alternative to Poly-k test in animal tumorigenicity studies (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. 2017, July 30 With Trade Deadline Near, The Mets Joke and Lose. New York Times, p. SP4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2000; Huber & Waldor 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huber & Waldor 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bradley, Reuter, & Frings 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ioffe et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles