How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pollard T. D. 2001 Genomics, the cytoskeleton and motility. Nature, 409(6822), 842–843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knight J. C., Russell P. S. J. 2002 Applied optics. New ways to guide light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5566), 276–277.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miller K. M., Rog O., Cooper J. P. 2006 Semi-conservative DNA replication through telomeres requires Taz1. Nature, 440(7085), 824–828.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Barluenga M., Stölting K. N., Salzburger W., Muschick M., Meyer A. 2006 Sympatric speciation in Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fish. Nature, 439(7077), 719–723.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gallant B. J. 2006 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
Mansouri F. (Ed.) 2015 Cultural, Religious and Political Contestations: The Multicultural Challenge. Springer International Publishing, Cham, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Kono M., Škorić M. M. 2010 Nonlinear Interactions in Plasmas. In: Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas, M. Skoric (ed.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 113–149.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2017, January 13 You’re Probably Showering Way Too Often. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1992 Parent and Supplemental Student Loans: Volume and Default Trends for Fiscal Years 1989 to 1991 (No. HRD-92-138FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Munim A. 2013 Studies on the role of vitamin D in asthma patients from a south Florida pulmonary practice (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. 2007, November 7 Job Bias Case Turns on Filing Right Form. New York Times, p. A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pollard 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Pollard 2001; Knight & Russell 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Knight & Russell 2002)
  • Three authors: (Miller, Rog, & Cooper 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Barluenga, Stölting, Salzburger, Muschick, & Meyer 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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