How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xanthos M. 2012 Recycling of the #5 polymer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6095), 700–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
He S., MacLeod D. I. 2001 Orientation-selective adaptation and tilt after-effect from invisible patterns. Nature, 411(6836), 473–476.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baldini G., Cannone F., Chirico G. 2005 Pre-unfolding resonant oscillations of single green fluorescent protein molecules. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5737), 1096–1100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Massimini M., Ferrarelli F., Huber R., Esser S. K., Singh H., Tononi G. 2005 Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5744), 2228–2232.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Elias H.-G. 2006 Macromolecules. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, p.
An edited book
Marinca V. 2015 The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method: Engineering Applications (N. Herisanu, Ed.). Springer International Publishing, Cham, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Devos A. S., Meradji M., Blickman J. G. 2008 The Small Bowel. In: Radiological Imaging of the Digestive Tract in Infants and Children, A. S. Devos & J. G. Blickman (eds.). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 167–191.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. 2017, January 11 Planet Nine May Have Been A Rogue World Captured By Our Solar System. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1989 Special Education: Congressional Action Needed to Improve Chapter 1 Handicapped Program (No. HRD-89-54). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crider M. C. 2012 The social and environmental effects of shrimp mariculture: Case studies of two coastal villages in Ecuador (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. 2002, October 26 Fordham’s Big 3 Make Trip North Worthwhile. New York Times, p. D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Xanthos 2012).
This sentence cites two references (He & MacLeod 2001; Xanthos 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (He & MacLeod 2001)
  • Three authors: (Baldini, Cannone, & Chirico 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Massimini et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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