How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rees W. E. 2003 Ecological footprints: A blot on the land. Nature, 421(6926), 898.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fu Y.-X., Storb U. 2002 Immunology. Autoreactive B cells migrate into T cell territory. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5589), 2006–2008.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lyon B. E., Chaine A. S., Winkler D. W. 2008 Ecology. A matter of timing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5892), 1051–1052.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Visscher P. M., Smith D., Hall S. J., Williams J. L., Williams J. A. 2001 A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle. Nature, 409(6818), 303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ben Mahmoud M. S., Guerber C., Larrieu N., Pirovano A., Radzik J. 2014 Aeronautical Air-Ground Data Link Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
Priami C., Dressler F., Akan O. B., Ngom A. (Eds.) 2008 Transactions on Computational Systems Biology X (Vol. 5410). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Thalmann D., Musse S. R. 2007 Behavioral Animation of Crowds. In: Crowd Simulation, S. R. Musse (ed.). Springer, London, pp. 89–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2016, April 25 How The Power To Control Objects With Our Minds Stopped Being Science Fiction. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012 Transportation: Key Issues and Management Challenges (No. GAO-12-581T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Legaspi J. 2010 Accelerated supported employment program: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz J. 2017, August 10 Students, Cities and States Take the Global Warming Fight to Court. New York Times, p. A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rees 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Fu & Storb 2002; Rees 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fu & Storb 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lyon, Chaine, & Winkler 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Visscher, Smith, Hall, Williams, & Williams 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles