How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glotzer M. 2005 The molecular requirements for cytokinesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5716), 1735–1739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Humler E., Besse J. 2002 A correlation between mid-ocean-ridge basalt chemistry and distance to continents. Nature, 419(6907), 607–609.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nishida N., Katamine S., Manuelidis L. 2005 Reciprocal interference between specific CJD and scrapie agents in neural cell cultures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5747), 493–496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Takagi J., Yang Y., Liu J.-H., Wang J.-H., Springer T. A. 2003 Complex between nidogen and laminin fragments reveals a paradigmatic beta-propeller interface. Nature, 424(6951), 969–974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Memming R. 2015 Semiconductor Electrochemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, p.
An edited book
Adler R. A. (Ed.) 2010 Osteoporosis: Pathophysiology and Clinical Management. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Csató G., Dacorogna B., Kneuss O. 2012 Dimension Reduction. In: The Pullback Equation for Differential Forms, B. Dacorogna & O. Kneuss (eds.). Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, pp. 91–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014, December 3 How the Bubonic Plague Bacterium Co-Opted Fleas. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1993 Educational Achievement Standards: NAGB’s Approach Yields Misleading Interpretations (No. PEMD-93-12). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
He H. 2006 Numerical Simulations of Unsteady Flows in a Pulse Detonation Engine by the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Coll S. 2017, March 10 Size Matters. New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glotzer 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Humler & Besse 2002; Glotzer 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Humler & Besse 2002)
  • Three authors: (Nishida, Katamine, & Manuelidis 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Takagi, Yang, Liu, Wang, & Springer 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles