How to format your references using the Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Helin K. 2004 Bricks and mortar. Building Copenhagen’s BioCentre. Nature, 428(6979), 238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Edgar B. A., Kim K. J. 2009 Cell biology. Sizing up the cell. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5937), 158–159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Benton M. J., Tverdokhlebov V. P., Surkov M. V. 2004 Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian-Triassic boundary in Russia. Nature, 432(7013), 97–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu W., Wang C., Li Q., Ye C., Qin J., Li Z. 2014 The influence of pentafluorophenyl groups on the nonlinear optical (NLO) performance of high generation dendrons and dendrimers. Scientific Reports, 4, 6101.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D. 2007 TKO Hiring! John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, p.
An edited book
Das B. K. (Ed.) 2015 Positron Emission Tomography: A Guide for Clinicians. Springer India, New Delhi, p.
A chapter in an edited book
Tu E. J.-C., Wang J. 2014 Patterns and Changes in Household Structure in Hong Kong. In: The Family and Social Change in Chinese Societies, D. L. Poston Jr., W. S. Yang, & D. N. Farris (eds.). Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 59–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development.

Blog post
Fang J. 2014, October 17 Livestock Painkillers are Devastating Vulture Populations. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2014 Federally Funded Research Centers: Agency Reviews of Employee Compensation and Center Performance (No. GAO-14-593). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ruby C. A. 2017 Application of Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) to Remotely Operated Vehicle (Rov) Video Data for Enhanced Geospatial Analysis of Deep Sea Environments (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. 2016, August 19 Starring in Someone Else’s Film. New York Times, p. MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Helin 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Helin 2004; Edgar & Kim 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Edgar & Kim 2009)
  • Three authors: (Benton, Tverdokhlebov, & Surkov 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development
AbbreviationJ. Water Sanit. Hyg. Dev.
ISSN (print)2043-9083
ISSN (online)2408-9362
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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