How to format your references using the Journal of Water Process Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Water Process Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.D. McGehee, Applied physics. Paradigm shifts in dye-sensitized solar cells, Science. 334 (2011) 607–608.
A journal article with 2 authors
W. Cheng, W. Li, Structural insights into ubiquinone biosynthesis in membranes, Science. 343 (2014) 878–881.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Mignot, J.P. Merlie Jr, D.R. Zusman, Regulated pole-to-pole oscillations of a bacterial gliding motility protein, Science. 310 (2005) 855–857.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Kojima, R. Tokizawa, K. Kogure, Y. Kobayashi, M. Itoh, F.-K. Shiah, N. Okuda, M. Fukui, Community structure of planktonic methane-oxidizing bacteria in a subtropical reservoir characterized by dominance of phylotype closely related to nitrite reducer, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5728.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Fernandes, Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
V. Mirceski, Square-Wave Voltammetry: Theory and Application, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Wang, F. Xu, L. Feng, X. Xiang, Abnormal Uterine Development, in: L. Zhu, F. Wong, J. Lang (Eds.), Atlas of Surgical Correction of Female Genital Malformation, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 207–241.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Water Process Engineering.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, The 8 Books Neil deGrasse Tyson Thinks Every Person Should Read, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s Efforts to Identify and Follow Up with High-risk Carriers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.S. Goldberg, Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Saslow, Design Teams Hired in Nassau Coliseum Project, New York Times. (2007) LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Water Process Engineering
AbbreviationJ. Water
ISSN (print)2214-7144

Other styles