How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Eisenstein, M. (2015). Big data: The power of petabytes. Nature, 527(7576), S2-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Parish, M. M., & Littlewood, P. B. (2003). Non-saturating magnetoresistance in heavily disordered semiconductors. Nature, 426(6963), 162–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Passarelli, L., Rivalta, E., & Shuler, A. (2014). Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. Scientific Reports, 4, 3886.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Woehl, T. J., Kashyap, S., Firlar, E., Perez-Gonzalez, T., Faivre, D., Trubitsyn, D., Bazylinski, D. A., & Prozorov, T. (2014). Correlative electron and fluorescence microscopy of magnetotactic bacteria in liquid: toward in vivo imaging. Scientific Reports, 4, 6854.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taroni, F., Biedermann, A., Bozza, S., Garbolino, P., & Aitken, C. (2014). Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference and Decision Analysis in Forensic Science. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ketonen, L. M. (2005). Pediatric Brain and Spine: An Atlas of MRI and Spectroscopy (A. Hiwatashi, R. Sidhu, & P.-L. Westesson, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehling, H., & Cabeza, L. F. (2008). Design of latent heat storages. In L. F. Cabeza (Ed.), Heat and cold storage with PCM: An up to date introduction into basics and applications (pp. 137–179). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, February 17). Glacial “Aftershock” Causes City-Sized Chunk Of Ice To Break From Antarctica. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Block Grants Brought Funding Changes and Adjustments to Program Priorities (HRD-85-33). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim, S. B. (2010). Model uncertainty and model averaging in the estimation of benchmark dose [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, October 11). Thames, Schooled In the Yankee Way, Plays His Role. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Eisenstein, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Eisenstein, 2015; Parish & Littlewood, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Parish & Littlewood, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Passarelli et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Woehl et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Behav.
ISSN (print)0001-8791
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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