How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2003). Report backs Smithsonian research. Nature, 421(6920), 198.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bina, C. R., & Navrotsky, A. (2000). Possible presence of high-pressure ice in cold subducting slabs. Nature, 408(6814), 844–847.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruefli-Brasse, A. A., French, D. M., & Dixit, V. M. (2003). Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent lymphocyte activation and development by paracaspase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5650), 1581–1584.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Soliman, F. M., Fathy, M. M., Salama, M. M., Al-Abd, A. M., Saber, F. R., & El-Halawany, A. M. (2014). Cytotoxic activity of acyl phloroglucinols isolated from the leaves of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. cultivated in Egypt. Scientific Reports, 4, 5410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe, O. C. (2011). Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Baskin, L. (2015). Resonant Tunneling: Quantum Waveguides of Variable Cross-Section, Asymptotics, Numerics, and Applications (P. Neittaanmäki, B. Plamenevskii, & O. Sarafanov, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Silva, R., Mota, A., & Starr, R. R. (2014). Formal MDE-Based Tool Development. In T. Bouabana-Tebibel & S. H. Rubin (Eds.), Integration of Reusable Systems (pp. 105–125). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, June 29). Climate Change Could Wipe Out 60 Percent Of Adélie Penguins This Century, Study Finds. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1981). The Army’s Battery Computer System (MASAD-81-18). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wyers, M. L. (2015). An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom [Doctoral dissertation]. Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, January 6). Lehman Bros. Grapples With Arts Zoning Rules. New York Times, 144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bina & Navrotsky, 2000; Check, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bina & Navrotsky, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Ruefli-Brasse et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Soliman et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Behav.
ISSN (print)0001-8791
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles