How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell, T. P. (2002). Surface-responsive materials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5583), 964–967.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nowak, M. A., & Sigmund, K. (2004). Evolutionary dynamics of biological games. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5659), 793–799.
A journal article with 3 authors
Levine, D. I., Toffel, M. W., & Johnson, M. S. (2012). Randomized government safety inspections reduce worker injuries with no detectable job loss. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6083), 907–911.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
de la Fuente-Fernández, R., Ruth, T. J., Sossi, V., Schulzer, M., Calne, D. B., & Stoessl, A. J. (2001). Expectation and dopamine release: mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5532), 1164–1166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Singleton, T. W., & Singleton, A. J. (2010). Fraud Auditing and Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pavese, F. (2013). Modern Gas-Based Temperature and Pressure Measurements. (G. Molinar Min Beciet, Ed.) (2nd ed. 2013). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ji, J., & Jin, Q. (2014). Photo-Responsive Polymeric Nanocarriers for On-Demand Drug Delivery. In A. Prokop, Y. Iwasaki, & A. Harada (Eds.), Intracellular Delivery II: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 93–113). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 11). Jurassic World: If You Make A Monster It Will Always Bite Back. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1985). Job Training Partnership Act, Title III Dislocated Worker Program (No. 128415). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cai, S. (2008). 3D Numerical Modeling of Dry/Wet Contact Mechanics for Rough, Multilayered Elastic-Plastic Solid Surfaces and Effects of Hydrophilicity/Hydrophobicity During Separation with Applications (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, August 11). Mets, Dealing Slugger, Will Add a Player They Hope Will Be One. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Russell, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Nowak & Sigmund, 2004; Russell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nowak & Sigmund, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Levine, Toffel, & Johnson, 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (de la Fuente-Fernández et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Behav.
ISSN (print)0001-8791
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles