How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Varmus, H. (2006). The new era in cancer research. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1162–1165.
A journal article with 2 authors
Selosse, M.-A., & Rousset, F. (2011). Evolution. The plant-fungal marketplace. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6044), 828–829.
A journal article with 3 authors
Foth, C., Tischlinger, H., & Rauhut, O. W. M. (2014). New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature, 511(7507), 79–82.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mahendiran, K., Elie, C., Nebel, J.-C., Ryan, A., & Pierscionek, B. K. (2014). Primary sequence contribution to the optical function of the eye lens. Scientific Reports, 4, 5195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jevon, P. (2012). Paediatric Advanced Life Support. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wu, C. (Ed.). (2016). Early Navigation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Maritime Archaeological Perspective. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schore, A. N., & Newton, R. P. (2013). Using Modern Attachment Theory to Guide Clinical Assessments of Early Attachment Relationships. In J. E. Bettmann & D. Demetri Friedman (Eds.), Attachment-Based Clinical Work with Children and Adolescents (pp. 61–96). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, April 10). Why are the Dutch the Tallest People on Earth? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Improvements Needed in NASA’s Estimating and Reporting of Program Costs (No. 093832). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kelly, J. C. (2012). The fluid evolution of the Mount Mica and Irish Pit pegmatites, Maine: Evidence from stable isotopes [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2016, December 22). Evacuation Ends, Leaving Aleppo in Government Hands. New York Times, A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Varmus, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Selosse & Rousset, 2011; Varmus, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Selosse & Rousset, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Foth et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mahendiran et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Behav.
ISSN (print)0001-8791
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

Other styles