How to format your references using the Journal of Vocational Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vocational Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wickware, P. (2002). Fields of dreams. Nature, 415(6870), 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, S. W., & Ahn, J.-P. (2013). Polycrystalline nanowires of gadolinium-doped ceria via random alignment mediated by supercritical carbon dioxide. Scientific Reports, 3, 1606.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodroffe, R., Hedges, S., & Durant, S. M. (2014). Ecology. To fence or not to fence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6179), 46–48.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Uauy, C., Distelfeld, A., Fahima, T., Blechl, A., & Dubcovsky, J. (2006). A NAC Gene regulating senescence improves grain protein, zinc, and iron content in wheat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5803), 1298–1301.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Twomey, B. (2011). Inside the Currency Market. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kumar, B. M., & Nair, P. K. R. (Eds.). (2006). Tropical Homegardens: A Time-Tested Example of Sustainable Agroforestry (Vol. 3). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Arzoumanidis, I., Petti, L., Raggi, A., & Zamagni, A. (2013). Life Cycle Assessment for the Agri-Food Sector. In R. Salomone, M. T. Clasadonte, M. Proto, & A. Raggi (Eds.), Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools (pp. 105–122). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, September 26). Star Without Iron Inspires Galactic Archaeology. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Reasons for Ending Financial Support to the Dimmitt Independent School District Follow Through Project (B-164031(1)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carter, C. A. (2008). The Panhellenic Project: Assessing learning engagement using Web 2.0 technologies [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. (2014, April 24). Colombia’s President Reinstates a Mayor He Ousted. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wickware, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Kim & Ahn, 2013; Wickware, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim & Ahn, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Woodroffe et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Uauy et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vocational Behavior
AbbreviationJ. Vocat. Behav.
ISSN (print)0001-8791
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Applied Psychology
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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