How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Languages and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.L. Cisne, How science survived: medieval manuscripts’ “demography” and classic texts’ extinction, Science. 307 (2005) 1305–1307.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.H. Renear, C.L. Palmer, Strategic reading, ontologies, and the future of scientific publishing, Science. 325 (2009) 828–832.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.F. McCarty, J.A. Nobel, N.C. Bartelt, Vacancies in solids and the stability of surface morphology, Nature. 412 (2001) 622–625.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.J. Kennett, J.P. Kennett, A. West, C. Mercer, S.S.Q. Hee, L. Bement, T.E. Bunch, M. Sellers, W.S. Wolbach, Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer, Science. 323 (2009) 94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.-C. Péra, D. Hissel, H. Gualous, C. Turpin, Electrochemical Components, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2013.
An edited book
P. Arestis, M. Sawyer, eds., Emerging Economies During and After the Great Recession, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Cerrito, The Risk of Comparative Effectiveness Analysis for Decision Making Purposes, in: J. Lu, L.C. Jain, G. Zhang (Eds.), Handbook on Decision Making: Vol 2: Risk Management in Decision Making, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing.

Blog post
B. Taub, Medical Examiner’s Report Shows Prince Died After Overdosing On Painkiller That’s 80 Times Stronger Than Morphine, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on DOD Data Center Consolidation Plan], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.U. Castan, Congruence x employment tenure: A study with transitioning youth with disabilities, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Kanter, M. Wolgelenter, E.U. Leader Jokes About English’s Decline, New York Times. (2017) A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Languages and Computing
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Lang. Comput.
ISSN (print)1045-926X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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