How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Languages and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Dunn, Cancer: Solving an age-old problem, Nature. 483 (2012) S2-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. Thompson, A.S. Tucker, Dual origin of the epithelium of the mammalian middle ear, Science. 339 (2013) 1453–1456.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.J. Hwang, D. Carpenter, A.S. Kesselheim, Target small firms for antibiotic innovation, Science. 344 (2014) 967–969.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T.M. Schutzius, G. Graeber, M. Elsharkawy, J. Oreluk, C.M. Megaridis, Morphing and vectoring impacting droplets by means of wettability-engineered surfaces, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chartered Institute of Building, Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, 2014.
An edited book
D.A. Bini, V. Mehrmann, V. Olshevsky, E.E. Tyrtyshnikov, M. van Barel, eds., Numerical Methods for Structured Matrices and Applications: The Georg Heinig Memorial Volume, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
K.L.E. Hon, A.K.C. Leung, Use of Moisturizers in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis, in: M. Lodén, H.I. Maibach (Eds.), Treatment of Dry Skin Syndrome: The Art and Science of Moisturizers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing.

Blog post
J. Fang, Monkeys Use Researchers as Human Shields, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FAA Procurement: Major Data-Processing Contract Should Not Be Awarded, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.A. Jackson, Musculoskeletal Injuries in California Ocean Lifeguards, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Landler, Trump Treads Into Feud Between Qatar and Saudis, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Languages and Computing
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Lang. Comput.
ISSN (print)1045-926X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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