How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Languages and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Bartels-Rausch, Chemistry: Ten things we need to know about ice and snow, Nature. 494 (2013) 27–29.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.J. Johnson, D. Goldstein, Medicine. Do defaults save lives?, Science. 302 (2003) 1338–1339.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. McAlary, J.J. Yerbury, J.A. Aquilina, Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.A. Fares, M.X. Ruiz-González, A. Moya, S.F. Elena, E. Barrio, Endosymbiotic bacteria: groEL buffers against deleterious mutations, Nature. 417 (2002) 398.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S.M. Abutarbush, Illustrated Guide to Equine Diseases, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, Iowa, USA, 2015.
An edited book
G. Faure, The Transantarctic Mountains: Rocks, Ice, Meteorites and Water, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Werth, V.N. Gheorghe, F.G. Major, Optical Spectroscopy, in: V.N. Gheorghe, F.G. Major (Eds.), Charged Particle Traps II: Applications, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 129–159.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Asteroid Mining Company Planetary Resources Launches Its First Prototype Spacecraft, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Data Center Consolidation: Agencies Making Progress on Efforts, but Inventories and Plans Need to Be Completed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Nam, A method for teaching jazz improvisation to beginning pianists in a group setting, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Rothenberg, Ninth-Seeded Radwanska Exceeds Her Expectations, New York Times. (2017) D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Languages and Computing
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Lang. Comput.
ISSN (print)1045-926X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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