How to format your references using the Journal of Visual Languages and Computing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Golub, Counterpoint: Data first, Nature. 464 (2010) 679.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Lynch, J.S. Conery, The origins of genome complexity, Science. 302 (2003) 1401–1404.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.H. Levine, Y. Lin, M.B. Elowitz, Functional roles of pulsing in genetic circuits, Science. 342 (2013) 1193–1200.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Bozzini, M. Amati, L. Gregoratti, M. Kiskinova, In-situ photoelectron microspectroscopy and imaging of electrochemical processes at the electrodes of a self-driven cell, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2848.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K.A. Gray, J.J. Paschkewitz, Next Generation HALT and HASS, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Y. Pan, F.J. Rammig, H. Schmeck, M. Solar, eds., Biologically Inspired Cooperative Computing: IFIP 19th World Computer Congress, TC 10: 1st IFIP International Conference on Biologically Inspired Computing, August 21–24, 2006, Santiago, Chile, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
T.H. Noor, Q.Z. Sheng, A. Bouguettaya, Robust and Adaptive Credibility Model, in: Q.Z. Sheng, A. Bouguettaya (Eds.), Trust Management in Cloud Services, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Visual Languages and Computing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, May 13 Google Doodle Commemorates Seismologist Inge Lehmann, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA: Choices and Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Sewell, A typology of sampling in hip-hop, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, Hello, P.L.O.? This Is Israel, via Oslo, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Visual Languages and Computing
AbbreviationJ. Vis. Lang. Comput.
ISSN (print)1045-926X
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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