How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A. Grassroots initiatives. Nature 2010;466:S20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelliher T, Walbot V. Hypoxia triggers meiotic fate acquisition in maize. Science 2012;337:345–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meyer zu Heringdorf FJ, Reuter MC, Tromp RM. Growth dynamics of pentacene thin films. Nature 2001;412:517–20.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sepúlveda J, Wendler JE, Summons RE, Hinrichs K-U. Rapid resurgence of marine productivity after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. Science 2009;326:129–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Bagotsky V, M. Skundin A, M. Volfkovich Y. Electrochemical Power Sources. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Becker J, Delfmann P, editors. Reference Modeling: Efficient Information Systems Design Through Reuse of Information Models. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Avoine G, Carpent X, Martin B. Strong Authentication and Strong Integrity (SASI) Is Not That Strong. In: Ors Yalcin SB, editor. Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues: 6th International Workshop, RFIDSec 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, June 8-9, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 50–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Cardiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Planet In Three-Star System Directly Imaged For The First Time. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Family Education Loan Program: More Oversight Is Needed for Schools That Are Lenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huffman KD. Teacher and administrator perceptions of a balanced school calendar and its effects on students in poverty. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yaccino S, Cooper M. Cries of Betrayal As Detroit Plans To Cut Pensions. New York Times 2013:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Cardiology
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)1760-2734
General Veterinary

Other styles