How to format your references using the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Veterinary Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conner JK. Genetic mechanisms of floral trait correlations in a natural population. Nature 2002;420:407–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu Y, Ang LK. Motion-induced radiation from electrons moving in Maxwell’s fish-eye. Sci Rep 2013;3:3065.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lowman M, D’Avanzo C, Brewer C. Ecology. A national ecological network for research and education. Science 2009;323:1172–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Choi J, Jeong H-K, Snyder MA, Stoeger JA, Masel RI, Tsapatsis M. Grain boundary defect elimination in a zeolite membrane by rapid thermal processing. Science 2009;325:590–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cremona C. Structural Performance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Kumar S. Managing Product Life Cycle in a Supply Chain: Context A Prescription Based on Empirical Research. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Eisfeld B. Turbulence Models in FLOWer. In: Kroll N, Fassbender JK, editors. MEGAFLOW - Numerical Flow Simulation for Aircraft Design: Results of the second phase of the German CFD initiative MEGAFLOW, presented during its closing symposium at DLR, Braunschweig, Germany, December 10 and 11, 2002, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 63–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Veterinary Cardiology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Lack of Support When Coming Out Is Biggest Risk For Mental Health, Not Sexual Orientation. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Areas Needing Improvement in the Adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Theis JY. Accessing mental health services among Asian American adults: Evidence from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel B. Building a Better Bowler. New York Times 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Veterinary Cardiology
AbbreviationJ. Vet. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)1760-2734
General Veterinary

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