How to format your references using the Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone R. EASTERN EUROPE: Serbian University Law Causes Turmoil. Science 2000;290:691.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hemmi JM, Zeil J. Robust judgement of inter-object distance by an arthropod. Nature 2003;421:160–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cao A, Romanowicz B, Takeuchi N. An observation of PKJKP: inferences on inner core shear properties. Science 2005;308:1453–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Alavi A, Hood JD, Frausto R, Stupack DG, Cheresh DA. Role of Raf in vascular protection from distinct apoptotic stimuli. Science 2003;301:94–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Raj PP, Erdine S. Pain-Relieving Procedures. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Rosin P, Adamatzky A, Sun X, editors. Cellular Automata in Image Processing and Geometry. vol. 10. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Amengual E, Mas A, Mesquida AL. Team SPICE: A SPICE-Based Teamwork Assessment Model. In: Riel A, O’Connor R, Tichkiewitch S, Messnarz R, editors. Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement: 17th European Conference, EuroSPI 2010, Grenoble, France, September 1-3, 2010. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010, p. 37–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Journeying to the Earth’s core. IFLScience 2013.’s-core/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Selection and Implementation of the Office of Management and Budget’s 24 Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramirez M. Support groups for caregivers of older adults with end stage renal disease: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hay G, Currie A. Barclays’ Appetite For a U.S. Bank. New York Times 2010:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vascular Surgery Cases
ISSN (print)2352-667X

Other styles