How to format your references using the Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hallet B. Geology. Why do freezing rocks break? Science 2006;314:1092–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thornton A, McAuliffe K. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science 2006;313:227–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perrin RJ, Fagan AM, Holtzman DM. Multimodal techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature 2009;461:916–22.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roberts RM, Smith GW, Bazer FW, Cibelli J, Seidel GE Jr, Bauman DE, et al. Research priorities. Farm animal research in crisis. Science 2009;324:468–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown R. Rational Choice and Judgment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Denk R. General Parabolic Mixed Order Systems in Lp and Applications. vol. 239. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Miyamoto Y. First-Principles Simulation on Femtosecond Dynamics in Condensed Matters Within TDDFT-MD Approach. In: Resch M, Bönisch T, Benkert K, Bez W, Furui T, Seo Y, editors. High Performance Computing on Vector Systems: Proceedings of the High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart, March 2005, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases.

Blog post
Andrew D. Ig Nobel Prize Winner: Why I Lived Like A Badger, An Otter, A Deer And A Swift. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Merchant Marine: Maritime Administration Should Assess Potential Mariner-Training Needs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Layne LL. Military leadership: Encouraging enlisted personnel to participate in continuing education. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Rudolph Valentino in ‘The Sheik.’ New York Times 2014:C37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vascular Surgery Cases
ISSN (print)2352-667X

Other styles