How to format your references using the Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow JM. HPV: The global burden. Nature 2012;488:S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Allen D, Westerblad H. Physiology. Lactic acid--the latest performance-enhancing drug. Science 2004;305:1112–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Videler JJ, Stamhuis EJ, Povel GDE. Leading-edge vortex lifts swifts. Science 2004;306:1960–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhu X, Feng C, Ye Z, Chen Y, Li G. Fabrication of magneto-controlled moveable architecture to develop reusable electrochemical biosensors. Sci Rep 2014;4:4169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lewis S. Positive Psychology and Change. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Yadav SS, Redden R, editors. Climate Change and Management of Cool Season Grain Legume Crops. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ma Z, Zhao Q, Zeng Y, Zhang H, Dai H-N. AT-MAC: A Novel Full Duplex MAC Design for Achieving Asymmetric Transmission. In: Kim KJ, Wattanapongsakorn N, Joukov N, editors. Mobile and Wireless Technologies 2016, Singapore: Springer; 2016, p. 41–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques.

Blog post
Fang J. Turtles Seem Surprisingly Unafraid Of Sharks. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Need for Disclosing Items Developed in Programs Funded Under Federal Grants. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham OB. The Chiron Complex: From Spiritual Bypassing to Individuation. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Encouraging Signs for the Ailing Mets. New York Times 2017:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
AbbreviationJ. Vasc. Surg. Cases Innov. Tech.
ISSN (print)2468-4287

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