How to format your references using the HEC Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HEC Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner, M. S. (2012). History: Aspen physics turns 50. Nature, 486(7403), 315–317.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vance, S. A., & Sandros, M. G. (2014). Zeptomole detection of C-reactive protein in serum by a nanoparticle amplified surface plasmon resonance imaging aptasensor. Scientific reports, 4, 5129.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jasny, B. R., Zahn, L. M., & Marshall, E. (2009). Complex systems and networks. Connections. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5939), 405.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shors, T. J., Miesegaes, G., Beylin, A., Zhao, M., Rydel, T., & Gould, E. (2001). Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature, 410(6826), 372–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff, N. P., & Davletshin, A. (2010). A Guide to Safe Material and Chemical Handling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Scholz, C., & Zentes, J. (Eds.). (2006). Strategic Management — New Rules for Old Europe. Wiesbaden: Gabler.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiesa, A., Fossati, F., Gambacciani, G., & Pensavalle, E. (2015). Enabling Technologies for Active Space Debris Removal: The Cadet Project. In T. Sgobba & I. Rongier (Eds.), Space Safety is No Accident: The 7th IAASS Conference (pp. 29–38). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HEC Forum.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 2). Can You Spot The Mistake In This Simple Viral Puzzle? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Aviation Safety: FAA’s Use of Emergency Orders to Revoke or Suspend Operating Certificates (No. RCED-98-199). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caverly, R. S. (2010). Marketing masculinity: Male identity, boy culture, and the Boy Scouts of America 1900–1940 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey, N. (2016, February 16). Pregnant and Facing Dilemma Over Zika. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Turner 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Turner 2012; Vance and Sandros 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vance and Sandros 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shors et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHEC Forum
AbbreviationHEC Forum
ISSN (print)0956-2737
ISSN (online)1572-8498
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

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