How to format your references using the HEC Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HEC Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luber-Narod, J. (2000). Soft money is hard to find. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5491), 453b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivera, M. C., & Lake, J. A. (2004). The ring of life provides evidence for a genome fusion origin of eukaryotes. Nature, 431(7005), 152–155.
A journal article with 3 authors
Costello, M. J., May, R. M., & Stork, N. E. (2013). Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct? Science (New York, N.Y.), 339(6118), 413–416.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
McSween, H. Y., Jr, Grove, T. L., Lentz, R. C., Dann, J. C., Holzheid, A. H., Riciputi, L. R., & Ryan, J. G. (2001). Geochemical evidence for magmatic water within Mars from pyroxenes in the Shergotty meteorite. Nature, 409(6819), 487–490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Micouin, P. (2014). Model-Based Systems Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schrogl, K.-U., Pagkratis, S., & Baranes, B. (Eds.). (2011). Yearbook on Space Policy 2009/2010: Space for Society. Vienna: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Verghese, K., & Carre, A. (2012). Applying Life Cycle Assessment. In K. Verghese, H. Lewis, & L. Fitzpatrick (Eds.), Packaging for Sustainability (pp. 171–210). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HEC Forum.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, April 28). Human-Shaped Species Of Mushroom Discovered In UK. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken to Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality (No. GAO-04-673). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, N. C. (2010). The association between rheumatoid arthritis, bone strength, and body composition within the women’s health initiative (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2016, January 30). Puerto Rico Proposes Plan to Delay Its Debt Payments to Free Up Cash. New York Times, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Luber-Narod 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Luber-Narod 2000; Rivera and Lake 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivera and Lake 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (McSween et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleHEC Forum
AbbreviationHEC Forum
ISSN (print)0956-2737
ISSN (online)1572-8498
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

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