How to format your references using the HEC Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HEC Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mann, A. (2011). Cosmology: The hunting of the dark. Nature, 471(7339), 433–435.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duggavathi, R., & Murphy, B. D. (2009). Development. Ovulation signals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5929), 890–891.
A journal article with 3 authors
Morais-Cabral, J. H., Zhou, Y., & MacKinnon, R. (2001). Energetic optimization of ion conduction rate by the K+ selectivity filter. Nature, 414(6859), 37–42.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Suh, G. S. B., Wong, A. M., Hergarden, A. C., Wang, J. W., Simon, A. F., Benzer, S., et al. (2004). A single population of olfactory sensory neurons mediates an innate avoidance behaviour in Drosophila. Nature, 431(7010), 854–859.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gadd, K. (2011). TRIZ for Engineers: Enabling Inventive Problem Solving. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dallet, D. (2005). Dynamic Characterisation of Analogue-to-Digital Converters. (J. M. da Silva, Ed.) (Vol. 860). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Salinelli, E., & Tomarelli, F. (2014). Complessità dei sistemi dinamici non lineari: biforcazioni e caos. In F. Tomarelli (Ed.), Modelli Dinamici Discreti (pp. 129–183). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HEC Forum.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, May 4). Cancer-Killing CRISPR Viruses Destroy Their “Command Centers” From Within. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Academy Preparatory Schools (No. NSIAD-94-56R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finnegan, R. J. (2010). Information food webs: A quantitative inquiry using a biological food web methodology (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky, M. (2017, October 5). September’s Most Popular Listings. New York Times, p. RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mann 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Duggavathi and Murphy 2009; Mann 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Duggavathi and Murphy 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Suh et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleHEC Forum
AbbreviationHEC Forum
ISSN (print)0956-2737
ISSN (online)1572-8498
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

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