How to format your references using the HEC Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for HEC Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2003). A demanding world. Nature, 424(6944), 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tang, S., & Presgraves, D. C. (2009). Evolution of the Drosophila nuclear pore complex results in multiple hybrid incompatibilities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5915), 779–782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conroy, C., van Dokkum, P. G., & Choi, J. (2015). Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations. Nature, 527(7579), 488–491.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Genin, A., Jaffe, J. S., Reef, R., Richter, C., & Franks, P. J. S. (2005). Swimming against the flow: a mechanism of zooplankton aggregation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5723), 860–862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Arendt, J. S., & Lorenzo, D. K. (2000). Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Plantier, G., Schultz, T., Fred, A., & Gamboa, H. (Eds.). (2015). Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies: 7th International Joint Conference, BIOSTEC 2014, Angers, France, March 3-6, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (1st ed. 2015., Vol. 511). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Almendros-Jiménez, J. M., & Becerra-Terón, A. (2016). XQuery-Based Query Processing in Open Street Map. In C. Grueau & J. Gustavo Rocha (Eds.), Geographical Information Systems Theory, Applications and Management: First International Conference, GISTAM 2015, Barcelona, Spain, April 28-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 50–68). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for HEC Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 13). WHO Approves Use of Unregistered Interventions For Ebola Patients. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). Need To Improve Management of ACDA’s Automatic Data Processing and Operations Analysis Functions (No. NSIAD-83-66). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kang, H. (2006). Essays on Methodologies in Contingent Valuation and the Sustainable Management of Common Pool Resources (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, June 24). Park as Long As You Like. New York Times, p. E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2003; Tang and Presgraves 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tang and Presgraves 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Genin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleHEC Forum
AbbreviationHEC Forum
ISSN (print)0956-2737
ISSN (online)1572-8498
ScopeHealth Policy
Issues, ethics and legal aspects
Health(social science)

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