How to format your references using the Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kelly, D.P.: Medicine. Irisin, light my fire. Science. 336, 42–43 (2012)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lardner, B., bin Lakim, M.: Animal communication: tree-hole frogs exploit resonance effects. Nature. 420, 475 (2002)
A journal article with 3 authors
Richards-Kortum, R., Gray, L.V., Oden, M.: IBI* series winner. Engaging undergraduates in global health technology innovation. Science. 336, 430–431 (2012)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mkhoyan, K.A., Batson, P.E., Cha, J., Schaff, W.J., Silcox, J.: Direct determination of local lattice polarity in crystals. Science. 312, 1354 (2006)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonilla, L.L., Teitsworth, S.W.: Nonlinear Wave Methods for Charge Transport. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany (2010)
An edited book
Bonnelle, C.: Rare-Earths and Actinides in High Energy Spectroscopy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2015)
A chapter in an edited book
Adhikari, A., Adhikari, J.: Measuring Association Among Items in a Database. In: Adhikari, J. (ed.) Advances in Knowledge Discovery in Databases. pp. 49–72. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications.

Blog post
Andrews, R.: Scientists Finally Unravel Hawaii’s Bizarre Origin Story,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Report May Overstate the Economic Benefits of Research and Development Spending. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1977)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kutash, M.: The Relationship Between Nurses’ Emotional Intelligence and Patient Outcomes, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hale, M.: It’s Hard Out There For Mercy Killers, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Uncertainty Analysis and Applications
AbbreviationJ. Uncertain. Anal. Appl.
ISSN (online)2195-5468

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