How to format your references using the Journal of Trust Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Trust Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grantham J (2012) Be persuasive. Be brave. Be arrested (if necessary). Nature 491:303
A journal article with 2 authors
Du J-L, Poo M-M (2004) Rapid BDNF-induced retrograde synaptic modification in a developing retinotectal system. Nature 429:878–883
A journal article with 3 authors
Plerou V, Gopikrishnan P, Stanley HE (2003) Econophysics: Two-phase behaviour of financial markets. Nature 421:130
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Iwai M, Pack C-G, Takenaka Y, et al (2013) Photosystem II antenna phosphorylation-dependent protein diffusion determined by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Sci Rep 3:2833

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Salam A (2009) Molecular Quantum Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Xu Y, Xu D, Liang J (2007) Computational Methods for Protein Structure Prediction and Modeling: Volume 2: Structure Prediction. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Omar HA, Zhuang W (2014) Conclusions and Future Works. In: Zhuang W (ed) Time Division Multiple Access For Vehicular Communications. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Trust Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) What It’s Like To Fly Around The World On Nothing But Solar Power. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Implementation Status of the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler JA (2012) The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M (1993) PRESIDENT MOVES IN FAVOR OF LABOR. New York Times A17

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Trust Management
AbbreviationJ. Trust Manag.
ISSN (online)2196-064X

Other styles