How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2010). Cellular imaging: Taking a long, hard look. Nature, 466(7310), 1137–1140.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brüggen, M., & Kaiser, C. R. (2002). Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters. Nature, 418(6895), 301–303.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mossinger, J., White, M., & Goymer, P. (2013). Coastal regions. Nature, 504(7478), 35.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Manney, G. L., Santee, M. L., Rex, M., Livesey, N. J., Pitts, M. C., Veefkind, P., … Zinoviev, N. S. (2011). Unprecedented Arctic ozone loss in 2011. Nature, 478(7370), 469–475.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagare, D. M. (2011). Electric Power Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Whitacre, D. M. (Ed.). (2011). Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 212. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lee, K.-H., & Vachon, S. (2016). The Carbon Economy: A Brave New World? In S. Vachon (Ed.), Business Value and Sustainability: An Integrated Supply Network Perspective (pp. 97–133). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, June 8). Watch Japanese High School Students Hatch A Chick Outside Its Egg. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from IFLScience website:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1987). Financing Higher Education: Examples Comparing Existing and Proposed Student Aid Programs (No. HRD-87-88FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Otarola, A. C. (2008). The effects of turbulence in an absorbing atmosphere on the propagation of microwave signals used in an active sounding system (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1995, January 22). Ghosts Of Montero, By the Sea. New York Times, p. 134.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2010; Brüggen & Kaiser, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brüggen & Kaiser, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Mossinger, White, & Goymer, 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Manney et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

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