How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholl, A. (2000). ANTIFERROMAGNETISM: Taking a Very Close Look at Magnetic Structures. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5472), 1762–1763.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearce, T. M., & Moran, D. W. (2012). Strategy-dependent encoding of planned arm movements in the dorsal premotor cortex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 337(6097), 984–988.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sharon, E., Cohen, G., & Fineberg, J. (2001). Propagating solitary waves along a rapidly moving crack front. Nature, 410(6824), 68–71.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Staller, P., Sulitkova, J., Lisztwan, J., Moch, H., Oakeley, E. J., & Krek, W. (2003). Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL. Nature, 425(6955), 307–311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Altman, M. C. (2011). Kant and Applied Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Demetrescu, C. (Ed.). (2007). Experimental Algorithms: 6th International Workshop, WEA 2007, Rome, Italy, June 6-8, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4525). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
De Masellis, R., Ghidini, C., & Ranise, S. (2015). A Declarative Framework for Specifying and Enforcing Purpose-Aware Policies. In S. Foresti (Ed.), Security and Trust Management: 11th International Workshop, STM 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21-22, 2015, Proceedings (pp. 55–71). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 21). How Many Eggs A Woman Has Reflects Her Heart Disease Risk. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Bureau of Indian Affairs Contracts for Automatic Data Processing Management Services, and for Development of a Management Information System at the Colorado River Indian Reservation (B-114868). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, J. (2013). Understanding the college experiences of Cambodian American students [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Moy, J. (2017, October 9). A Bridge That Spans Cultures. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scholl, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Pearce & Moran, 2012; Scholl, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pearce & Moran, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Sharon et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Staller et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

Other styles