How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2010). RNA interference: Homing in on delivery. Nature, 464(7292), 1225–1228.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barker, S., & Elderfield, H. (2002). Foraminiferal calcification response to glacial-interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2. Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582), 833–836.
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson, K. G., Jackson, J. B. C., & Budd, A. F. (2008). Caribbean reef development was independent of coral diversity over 28 million years. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5869), 1521–1523.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mejía-León, M. E., Petrosino, J. F., Ajami, N. J., Domínguez-Bello, M. G., & de la Barca, A. M. C. (2014). Fecal microbiota imbalance in Mexican children with type 1 diabetes. Scientific Reports, 4, 3814.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dujmović, D., Androić, B., & Lukačević, I. (2014). Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Dubitzky, W., Southgate, J., & Fuß, H. (Eds.). (2011). Understanding the Dynamics of Biological Systems: Lessons Learned from Integrative Systems Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Danezis, G., & Troncoso, C. (2009). Vida: How to Use Bayesian Inference to De-anonymize Persistent Communications. In I. Goldberg & M. J. Atallah (Eds.), Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 9th International Symposium, PETS 2009, Seattle, WA, USA, August 5-7, 2009. Proceedings (pp. 56–72). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 28). Vitamin B3 May Have Originated From Space. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2001). Highway Infrastructure: FHWA’s Model for Estimating Highway Needs Has Been Modified for State-Level Planning (No. GAO-01-299). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boakyewa, O. A. (2014). Nana Oparebea and the Akonnedi Shrine: Cultural, religious and global agents (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2003, October 28). Staying Focused On Diversity Goals In Harder Times. New York Times, p. G2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2010; Barker & Elderfield, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barker & Elderfield, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Johnson, Jackson, & Budd, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Mejía-León, Petrosino, Ajami, Domínguez-Bello, & de la Barca, 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

Other styles