How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, J. E. (2003). Human population: the next half century. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5648), 1172–1175.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reynolds, T. B., & Fink, G. R. (2001). Bakers’ yeast, a model for fungal biofilm formation. Science (New York, N.Y.), 291(5505), 878–881.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gwak, G., Ko, J., & Ju, H. (2014). Effects of porous properties on cold-start behavior of polymer electrolyte fuel cells from sub-zero to normal operating temperatures. Scientific Reports, 4, 5770.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Earle, M. J., Esperança, J. M. S. S., Gilea, M. A., Lopes, J. N. C., Rebelo, L. P. N., Magee, J. W., Seddon, K. R., & Widegren, J. A. (2006). The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids. Nature, 439(7078), 831–834.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bock, R. (2005). Handbuch der analytisch-chemischen Aufschlussmethoden. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Brandes, S. B. (Ed.). (2008). Urethral Reconstructive Surgery. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Maggi, F., & Bendinelli, M. (2009). Immunobiology of the Torque Teno Viruses and Other Anelloviruses. In E.-M. de Villiers & H. Z. Hausen (Eds.), TT Viruses: The Still Elusive Human Pathogens (pp. 65–90). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, April 6). Astronomers Find Monster Galaxy That lived Fast And Died Young. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Transportation Security: Transportation Worker Identification Credential: A Status Update (GAO-08-1151T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stevenson, M. (2008). A change for the future: Presidents and deans real and ideal leadership practices at community and junior colleges in Mississippi [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, June 11). World Briefing | Europe: Moldova: Parliament Tells Russia To Pull Troops. New York Times, A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen, 2003; Reynolds & Fink, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Reynolds & Fink, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Gwak et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Earle et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

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