How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moller, D. E. (2001). New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nature, 414(6865), 821–827.
A journal article with 2 authors
Osterholm, M. T., & Henderson, D. A. (2012). Public health and biosecurity. Life sciences at a crossroads: respiratory transmissible H5N1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6070), 801–802.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shinde, D. B., Majumder, M., & Pillai, V. K. (2014). Counter-ion dependent, longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes to highly conductive and transparent graphene nanoribbons. Scientific Reports, 4, 4363.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Peng, X., Manna, L., Yang, W., Wickham, J., Scher, E., Kadavanich, A., & Alivisatos, A. P. (2000). Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals. Nature, 404(6773), 59–61.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Werner, M. (2015). Global Displacements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Drábek, P. (2013). Methods of Nonlinear Analysis: Applications to Differential Equations (J. Milota, Ed.; 2nd ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiarugi, F., Colantonio, S., Emmanouilidou, D., Moroni, D., & Salvetti, O. (2008). Biomedical Signal and Image Processing for Decision Support in Heart Failure. In P. Perner & O. Salvetti (Eds.), Advances in Mass Data Analysis of Images and Signals in Medicine, Biotechnology, Chemistry and Food Industry: Third International Conference, MDA 2008 Leipzig, Germany, July 14, 2008 Proceedings (pp. 38–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, January 26). What Your Brain Structure Says About Your Personality. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). College Debit Cards: Actions Needed to Address ATM Access, Student Choice, and Transparency (GAO-14-91). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas, J. K. (2014). CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tabarrok, A., & Rajagopalan, S. (2015, March 16). Private Cities, Open to All. New York Times, A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moller, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Moller, 2001; Osterholm & Henderson, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Osterholm & Henderson, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Shinde et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Peng et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

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