How to format your references using the Journal of Threat Assessment and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
LeBlanc, L. J. (2014). Atomic physics: Polar exploration. Nature, 505(7485), 627–628.
A journal article with 2 authors
Benedito, R., & Adams, R. H. (2009). Development. Aorta’s cardinal secret. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5950), 242–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKnight, S., Beyer, A., & Gall, J. (2012). Retrospective. Oscar Miller (1925-2012). Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6075), 1457.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tao, H.-S., Chen, Y.-H., Lin, H.-F., Liu, H.-D., & Liu, W.-M. (2014). Layer anti-ferromagnetism on bilayer honeycomb lattice. Scientific Reports, 4, 5367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jamison, D. C. (2005). Perl Programming for Biologists. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zimányi, E., & Kutsche, R.-D. (Eds.). (2015). Business Intelligence: 4th European Summer School, eBISS 2014, Berlin, Germany, July 6-11, 2014, Tutorial Lectures (Vol. 205). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Adhikari, A., & Adhikari, J. (2015). Measuring Association Among Items in a Database. In J. Adhikari (Ed.), Advances in Knowledge Discovery in Databases (pp. 49–72). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Threat Assessment and Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 28). Panda Fakes Pregnancy To Get More Food. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Internet Management: Structured Evaluation Could Help Assess Proposed Transition of Key Domain Name and Other Technical Functions (GAO-15-642). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Choubey, L. (2015). Quantitative Assessment of Fgfr1 Expression in Neurons and Glia of the Developing Mouse Brain [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker, L. (2007, November 14). Near Seattle, Tribal Casinos Lead to Even Bigger Bets. New York Times, C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (LeBlanc, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Benedito & Adams, 2009; LeBlanc, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Benedito & Adams, 2009)
  • Three authors: (McKnight et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Threat Assessment and Management
AbbreviationJ. Threat Assess. Manag.
ISSN (print)2169-4842
ISSN (online)2169-4850

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