How to format your references using the Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crothers DM. Biophysics. Fine tuning gene regulation. Science 2013;339:766–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dill KA, MacCallum JL. The protein-folding problem, 50 years on. Science 2012;338:1042–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Snyder SA, Gollner A, Chiriac MI. Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis. Nature 2011;474:461–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Krause O, Birkmann SM, Usuda T, Hattori T, Goto M, Rieke GH, et al. The Cassiopeia A supernova was of type IIb. Science 2008;320:1195–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schuenemeyer JH, Drew LJ. Statistics for Earth and Environmental Scientists. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Cancès E. Méthodes mathématiques en chimie quantique Une introduction. vol. 53. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Barcelo J, Bellalta B, Oliver M, Banchs A. Collision-Free Operation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks. In: Sacchi C, Bellalta B, Vinel A, Schlegel C, Granelli F, Zhang Y, editors. Multiple Access Communications: 4th International Workshop, MACOM 2011, Trento, Italy, September 12-13, 2011. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 51–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society.

Blog post
Hale T. Can You Spot The Hidden Object In This Image Of A Car Seat? IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Student Aid: Expanding Eligibility for Less Than Halftime Students Could Increase Program Costs, But Benefits Uncertain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters WC. An Evaluation of the Relationship Between Critical Technology Developments and Technology Maturity. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Uphold Basic Right To Choose Defense Lawyers. New York Times 2006:A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Nigerian Mathematical Society
AbbreviationJ. Nigerian Math. Soc.
ISSN (print)0189-8965

Other styles