How to format your references using the Journal of the National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mueller KL. Antibodies. The future is now. Introduction. Science. 2013;341(6151):1191.
A journal article with 2 authors
Aharonov Y, Zubairy MS. Time and the quantum: erasing the past and impacting the future. Science. 2005;307(5711):875-879.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tang C, Iwahara J, Clore GM. Visualization of transient encounter complexes in protein-protein association. Nature. 2006;444(7117):383-386.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang Y, Luan B-Q, Yang Z, et al. Single molecule investigation of Ag+ interactions with single cytosine-, methylcytosine- and hydroxymethylcytosine-cytosine mismatches in a nanopore. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5883.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Picard F, Tanguy C. Innovations and Techno-Ecological Transition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Akiyama J. Treks into Intuitive Geometry: The World of Polygons and Polyhedra. (Matsunaga K, ed.). Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Besana P, Robertson D. How Service Choreography Statistics Reduce the Ontology Mapping Problem. In: Aberer K, Choi K-S, Noy N, et al., eds. The Semantic Web: 6th International Semantic Web Conference, 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2007 + ASWC 2007, Busan, Korea, November 11-15, 2007. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007:44-57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Davis J. Enormous Fish-Eating Spiders Surge In Numbers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Request for Radio Frequencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Okada H. Modulation of BACE1 by a novel sorting nexin in Alzheimer’s disease. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. June 23, 2017:MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,1.
This sentence cites four references 1,1,1,1.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Cancer Inst.
ISSN (print)0027-8874
ISSN (online)1460-2105
ScopeCancer Research

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