How to format your references using the Journal of the National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Career-change carousel. Nature. 2003;423(6942):899.
A journal article with 2 authors
Araújo MB, Rahbek C. Ecology. How does climate change affect biodiversity? Science. 2006;313(5792):1396-1397.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao S, Zhou C, Yuan X. Palaeontology: undressing and redressing Ediacaran embryos. Nature. 2007;446(7136):E9-10; discussion E10-1.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mobashir M, Madhusudhan T, Isermann B, Beyer T, Schraven B. Negative interactions and feedback regulations are required for transient cellular response. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schneider HJ. Wittgenstein’s Later Theory of Meaning. John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Ueda T, Kawai A, eds. Osteosarcoma. 1st ed. 2016. Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiji C, Leiming Y. Microbiota and Microbial Mats within Ancient Stromatolites in South China. In: Tewari V, Seckbach J, eds. STROMATOLITES: Interaction of Microbes with Sediments. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. Springer Netherlands; 2011:65-86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Andrew D. Superbugs 1, The World 0. IFLScience. Published October 13, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Personnel: More Accurate Estimate of Overdue Security Clearance Reinvestigations Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen D. Deus-Ex-Machina: A Modern Skeptic’s Relentless Scrutiny of the Production of Ethics in Post-Colonial Literature and Postcolonialism. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes B, Koblin J. ABC’s ‘Live’ Ends Search, Naming Seacrest Co-Host. New York Times. May 1, 2017:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Cancer Inst.
ISSN (print)0027-8874
ISSN (online)1460-2105
ScopeCancer Research

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