How to format your references using the Journal of the National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harris A. What Spaceguard did. Nature. 2008;453(7199):1178-1179.
A journal article with 2 authors
Griffin AS, West SA. Kin discrimination and the benefit of helping in cooperatively breeding vertebrates. Science. 2003;302(5645):634-636.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wardle DA, Nilsson M-C, Zackrisson O. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science. 2008;320(5876):629.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mondello S, Buki A, Barzo P, et al. CSF and plasma amyloid-β temporal profiles and relationships with neurological status and mortality after severe traumatic brain injury. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6446.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Engle CR, Quagrainie KK, Dey MM. Seafood and Aquaculture Marketing Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Peters GW, Matsui T, eds. Modern Methodology and Applications in Spatial-Temporal Modeling. Springer Japan; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Anzures-García M, Hornos MJ, Paderewski-Rodríguez P. Development of Extensible and Flexible Collaborative Applications Using a Web Service-Based Architecture. In: Guelfi N, Buchs D, eds. Rapid Integration of Software Engineering Techniques: Third International Workshop, RISE 2006, Geneva, Switzerland, September 13-15, 2006. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2007:66-80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Saturated Fats Make Some Cells Lose Track Of Time – And That’s Bad. IFLScience. Published June 16, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. [Department of the Interior: Migratory Bird Hunting Final Rule]. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vega Aguirre JC. Study of small business leadership as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Published online 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shear MD, Goodstein L, Haberman M. Trump Is Expected to Relax Tax Rules on Churches That Actively Take Part in Politics. New York Times. May 3, 2017:A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Cancer Inst.
ISSN (print)0027-8874
ISSN (online)1460-2105
ScopeCancer Research

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