How to format your references using the Journal of the National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birkhead T. Stormy outlook for long-term ecology studies. Nature. 2014;514(7523):405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sipp D, Turner L. Stem cells. U.S. regulation of stem cells as medical products. Science. 2012;338(6112):1296-1297.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gergely G, Bekkering H, Király I. Rational imitation in preverbal infants. Nature. 2002;415(6873):755.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kwiat PG, Barraza-Lopez S, Stefanov A, Gisin N. Experimental entanglement distillation and “hidden” non-locality. Nature. 2001;409(6823):1014-1017.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair R. Organic Production and Food Quality. Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Yao T, ed. Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2010: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium of Global COE Program “Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming—Toward CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System.” Springer Japan; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Yao JT, Yao YY, Zhao Y. Foundations of Classification. In: Young Lin T, Ohsuga S, Liau CJ, Hu X, eds. Foundations and Novel Approaches in Data Mining. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer; 2005:75-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Andrew E. Quantum Positioning Could Be 1000x More Accurate Than GPS. IFLScience. Published May 19, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Impact of Airline Crew Scheduling on Delays and Cancellations of Commercial Flights. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gordon RL. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Song Prosody. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Rebels’ Plight Is Clear in Yemeni Capital. New York Times. November 26, 2016:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Natl. Cancer Inst.
ISSN (print)0027-8874
ISSN (online)1460-2105
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles