How to format your references using the Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber, K., 2012. Genetics: Deep exploration. Nature 492, S56-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, J., Feringa, B.L., 2011. Dynamic control of chiral space in a catalytic asymmetric reaction using a molecular motor. Science 331, 1429–1432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao, M.-H., Chen, X.-P., Wang, Q., 2014. Wetting failure of hydrophilic surfaces promoted by surface roughness. Sci. Rep. 4, 5376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Shiraishi, R., Ohtani, E., Kanagawa, K., Shimojuku, A., Zhao, D., 2008. Crystallographic preferred orientation of akimotoite and seismic anisotropy of Tonga slab. Nature 455, 657–660.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meinert, C.L., 2012. Clinical Trials Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mah, D., Hills, P., Li, V.O.K., Balme, R. (Eds.), 2014. Smart Grid Applications and Developments, Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Volpi, A., Grossi, S., Mazzani, R., 2015. Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Patients, in: Landoni, G., Mucchetti, M., Zangrillo, A., Bellomo, R. (Eds.), Reducing Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 39–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Astronomers Have Spotted A “Lost” Planet The Size Of Neptune [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. An Empty Pump Down the Road? (No. 136529). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilkes, D.M., 2008. Multiple modes of Mdmx regulation affect p53 activation (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M.A., 2003. BUSINESS TRAVEL: ON THE GROUND -- Paris; A City of Good Food, Fashion and Corporate Drama. New York Times C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garber, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Garber, 2012; Wang and Feringa, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Feringa, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Shiraishi et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
AbbreviationJ. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.
ISSN (print)1751-6161
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
Mechanics of Materials

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