How to format your references using the Journal of the Energy Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Energy Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Dickson, Chemist tipped for top UK science post, Nature. 406 (2000) 667.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.J. Greene, D.M. Gordon, Social insects: Cuticular hydrocarbons inform task decisions, Nature. 423 (2003) 32.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.A. Torres, A.J. West, G. Li, Sulphide oxidation and carbonate dissolution as a source of CO2 over geological timescales, Nature. 507 (2014) 346–349.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Schenkl, F. van Mourik, G. van der Zwan, S. Haacke, M. Chergui, Probing the ultrafast charge translocation of photoexcited retinal in bacteriorhodopsin, Science. 309 (2005) 917–920.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Aldridge, L. O’Dwyer, Practical Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Nursing, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK, 2013.
An edited book
M. Reiher, ed., Atomistic Approaches in Modern Biology: From Quantum Chemistry to Molecular Simulations, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Songqing, Chinese Bauxite and Its Influences on Alumina Production in China, in: D. Donaldson, B.E. Raahauge (Eds.), Essential Readings in Light Metals: Volume 1 Alumina and Bauxite, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 43–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Energy Institute.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Burning All Our Fossil Fuels Will Scorch The Earth And Obliterate The Arctic, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, [Comments on Proposal To Add Subpart to FAR], U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N. Torres, Do family nurse practitioner students understand the physiological changes associated with andropause in men over forty?, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Harwood, Republicans are battling themselves, New York Times. (2016) A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Energy Institute
ISSN (print)1743-9671

Other styles