How to format your references using the Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Frenking G. Chemistry. Building a quintuple bond. Science 2005;310:796–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Douglas T, Young M. Viruses: making friends with old foes. Science 2006;312:873–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maini PK, Baker RE, Chuong C-M. Developmental biology. The Turing model comes of molecular age. Science 2006;314:1397–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Van Wassenbergh S, Herrel A, Adriaens D, Huysentruyt F, Devaere S, Aerts P. Evolution: a catfish that can strike its prey on land. Nature 2006;440:881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kääriäinen T, Cameron D, Kääriäinen M-L, Sherman A. Atomic Layer Deposition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Dettmer-Wilde K, Engewald W, editors. Practical Gas Chromatography: A Comprehensive Reference. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Saakov VS, Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG. Application of Derivative Spectrophotometry in Comparative Biochemical Studies. In: Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG, editors. Derivative Spectrophotometry and PAM-Fluorescence in Comparative Biochemistry, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 349–478.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ozone Layer Showing Signs Of Recovery. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. A Judgmental Call: Measuring the Safety of the Airlines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barrett BT. Modernizing Copyright for Equitable Treatment in the Streaming Age. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly R. The New Southern Male. New York Times 2000:728.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Egypt. Natl. Canc. Inst.
ISSN (print)1110-0362
ScopeCancer Research

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