How to format your references using the Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Science and technology networks in Scandinavia. Nature 2002;420:A1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mappes J, Lindström L. Ecology. How did the cuckoo get its polymorphic plumage? Science 2012;337:532–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fox CG, Chadwick WW Jr, Embley RW. Direct observation of a submarine volcanic eruption from a sea-floor instrument caught in a lava flow. Nature 2001;412:727–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kahr B, Freudenthal J, Phillips S, Kaminsky W. Herapathite. Science 2009;324:1407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ginena K, Hamid A. Foundations of Sharī‘ah Governance of Islamic Banks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Trobec R, Vajteršic M, Zinterhof P, editors. Parallel Computing: Numerics, Applications, and Trends. 1st ed. London: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Manfrino RB, Ortega JAG, Delgado RV. Quadratic and Cubic Polynomials. In: Gómez Ortega JA, Valdez Delgado R, editors. Topics in Algebra and Analysis: Preparing for the Mathematical Olympiad, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 63–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute.

Blog post
Taub B. Scientists Restore Vision In Blind Mice. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Authority To Waive Claims by District of Columbia Against Employee or Former Employee. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gossett JM. Autobiographical insights into the spiritual psychologies of Jung and Bion. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bulkeley K. Data-Mining Our Dreams. New York Times 2013:SR14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
AbbreviationJ. Egypt. Natl. Canc. Inst.
ISSN (print)1110-0362
ScopeCancer Research

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