# How to format your references using the Journal of the American College of Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American College of Surgeons (JACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dang CV. Gene regulation: fine-tuned amplification in cells. .Nature.; 2014;511:417–418.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Horn PJ, Peterson CL. Molecular biology. Chromatin higher order folding--wrapping up transcription. .Science.; 2002;297:1824–1827.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Maret S, Bergin EA, Lada CJ. A low fraction of nitrogen in molecular form in a dark cloud. .Nature.; 2006;442:425–427.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Reimer A, Yagur-Kroll S, Belkin S, et al. Escherichia [corrected] coli ribose binding protein based bioreporters revisited. .Sci. Rep.; 2014;4:5626.

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kondrashov AS. Crumbling Genome. . In: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
1. Hörner W, Döbert H, Reuter LR, Kopp B von eds. The Education Systems of Europe. . 2nd ed. 2015. In: 2nd ed. 2015. Global Education Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kaneko M, Izumi H, Kitahara K, et al. A Simple Method of the ${\rm\kern-.15em T\kern-.1667em\lower.7ex\hbox{E}\kern-.125emX}$ Surface Drawing Suitable for Teaching Materials with the Aid of CAS, . In: Bubak M, Albada GD van, Dongarra J, Sloot PMA, eds Computational Science – ICCS 2008: 8th International Conference, Kraków, Poland, June 23-25, 2008, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008:35–45.

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. IFLScience 2015. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/space/what-s-it-see-auroras-other-planets/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. 2002.

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Shakya M. 2017.

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kenigsberg B. Starless Dreams. .New York Times.; 2017:C10.

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).