How to format your references using the Journal of the American College of Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American College of Surgeons (JACS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gilmore G. Astronomy. How cold is cold dark matter? .Science.; 2008;322:1476–1477.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Des Marais DL, Rausher MD. Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. .Nature.; 2008;454:762–765.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. .Nature.; 2000;405:299–304.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Murchison EP, Tovar C, Hsu A, et al. The Tasmanian devil transcriptome reveals Schwann cell origins of a clonally transmissible cancer. .Science.; 2010;327:84–87.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kovalev VA. Solutions in Lidar Profiling of the Atmosphere. . In: Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
1. Baranzini A, Ramirez J, Schaerer C, Thalmann P eds. Hedonic Methods in Housing Markets: Pricing Environmental Amenities and Segregation. . In: New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Burg MM. Mental Stress Ischemia: Characteristics, Pathophysiology, Prognosis and Treatment, . In: Parati G, Compare A, eds Clinical Psychology and Heart Disease. Milano: Springer, 2006:71–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American College of Surgeons.

Blog post
1. Hale T. IFLScience 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/sheep-invade-city-after-shepherd-falls-asleep/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Parkinson MM. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. AMC and Comcast to Offer A Commercial-Free Option. .New York Times.; 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1, 2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American College of Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Coll. Surg.
ISSN (print)1072-7515
ScopeSurgery

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