How to format your references using the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearse, JS: Ecological role of purple sea urchins. Science 2006;314:940–941.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flowers, RM, Farley, KA: Response to Comments on “Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon.” Science 2013;340:143.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weng, L, Menczer, F, Ahn, Y-Y: Virality prediction and community structure in social networks. Sci Rep 2013;3:2522.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murata, Y, Iwasaki, H, Sasaki, M, Inaba, K, Okamura, Y: Phosphoinositide phosphatase activity coupled to an intrinsic voltage sensor. Nature 2005;435:1239–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steele, D: From Therapist to Coach. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011).
An edited book
Algorithmic Game Theory: 8th International Symposium, SAGT 2015, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 28-30, 2015. Proceedings. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015).9347:
A chapter in an edited book
Hudson, MJ, Kim, RG, Goldberg, E: The Endoscopic Management of Biliary and Pancreatic Injury. Advanced Pancreaticobiliary Endoscopy 2016;67–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Blog post
Andrew, E: Closest Galaxy Collision To Earth Marked With Celestial Fireworks. IFLScience 2015;at <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Professional Standards Review Organization Program. (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1979).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oduntan, A: The Rheological Study of the Effects of Surfactant and Hydrophilic Bentonite Nano clay on Oil in Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, JB: Clinton Plan for Taxes Is Expansive but Complex. New York Times 2016;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-151X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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