How to format your references using the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kloosterman, WP: GENETICS. Making heads or tails of shattered chromosomes. Science 2015;348:1205–1206.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang, J, Chan, FK-M: Cell biology. RIPK3 takes another deadly turn. Science 2014;343:1322–1323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Walsh, JP, Cohen, WM, Arora, A: Science and the law. Working through the patent problem. Science 2003;299:1021.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
He, Y, Hou, L, Wang, H, Hu, K, McConkey, B: A modelling approach to evaluate the long-term effect of soil texture on spring wheat productivity under a rain-fed condition. Sci Rep 2014;4:5736.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blicq, RS, Moretto, LA: Writing Reports to Get Results. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York, USA, 2015).
An edited book
Handbook of Culturally Responsive School Mental Health: Advancing Research, Training, Practice, and Policy. (Springer: New York, NY, 2013).
A chapter in an edited book
Yamaguchi, H, Takahara, H: High-Speed Data Transmission Technology for the NEC SX-9. High Performance Computing on Vector Systems 2010 2010;63–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Blog post
Andrew, E: Awesome Timelapse Of A Resurrection Plant. IFLScience 2014;at <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Motor Carriers: More Could Be Done to Determine Impact of Excessive Loading and Unloading Wait Times on Hours of Service Violations. (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bergh, PA: Reconfiguring academic priorities: Through the eyes of Michigan community college Chief Academic Officers. 2009;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K: Irish Soda Bread, Family Style. New York Times 2011;NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-151X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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