How to format your references using the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramaswamy, S: Biochemistry. One atom makes all the difference. Science 2011;334:914–915.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jakse, N, Pasturel, A: Liquid Aluminum: atomic diffusion and viscosity from ab initio molecular dynamics. Sci Rep 2013;3:3135.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vajda, V, Raine, JI, Hollis, CJ: Indication of global deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary by New Zealand fern spike. Science 2001;294:1700–1702.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Clark, PU, McCabe, AM, Mix, AC, Weaver, AJ: Rapid rise of sea level 19,000 years ago and its global implications. Science 2004;304:1141–1144.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Broome, J: Weighing Goods. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2017).
An edited book
Oil and Gas Resources in China: A Roadmap to 2050. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010).
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, O: There is an Art to Teaching Science in the 21st Century. Emerging Technologies for STEAM Education: Full STEAM Ahead 2015;81–92.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Blog post
Fang, J: Plant Defense Hormones Build Healthy Microbiomes for Roots. IFLScience 2015;at <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Commercial Drivers: Certification Process for Drivers with Serious Medical Conditions. (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reich, JC: An iterative feature perturbation method for gene selection from microarray data. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, MW: In Hearing, Puerto Rico Faces Scope Of Its Woes. New York Times 2017;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-151X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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