How to format your references using the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schilling, G: ASTRONOMY: Neighborhood Gamma Ray Burst Boosts Theory. Science 2000;289:29.
A journal article with 2 authors
Taylor, MS, Hellberg, ME: Genetic evidence for local retention of pelagic larvae in a Caribbean reef fish. Science 2003;299:107–109.
A journal article with 3 authors
Andrews-Hanna, JC, Phillips, RJ, Zuber, MT: Meridiani Planum and the global hydrology of Mars. Nature 2007;446:163–166.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Vemula, PK, Kohler, JE, Blass, A, Williams, M, Xu, C, Chen, L, Jadhav, SR, John, G, Soybel, DI, Karp, JM: Self-assembled hydrogel fibers for sensing the multi-compartment intracellular milieu. Sci Rep 2014;4:4466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum, J, Pearl, J: Investment Banking. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009).
An edited book
Fete of Combinatorics and Computer Science. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010).20:
A chapter in an edited book
Restivo, S: Theory of Mind, Social Science, and Mathematical Practice. Perspectives On Mathematical Practices: Bringing Together Philosophy of Mathematics, Sociology of Mathematics, and Mathematics Education 2007;61–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J: Check Out This Cool Footage Of Dust Devils Tearing Across Mars. IFLScience 2017;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Bus Rapid Transit: Projects Improve Transit Service and Can Contribute to Economic Development. (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2012).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, C: The education of Dr. Khalil Totah. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G: Waiting To Discover If Water Still Flows. New York Times 2010;B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-151X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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