How to format your references using the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mesirov, JP: Computer science. Accessible reproducible research. Science 2010;327:415–416.
A journal article with 2 authors
Alekseev, V, Lampert, W: Maternal control of resting-egg production in Daphnia. Nature 2001;414:899–901.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall, CH, Pielke, RA, Sr, Steyaert, LT: Wetlands: crop freezes and land-use change in Florida. Nature 2003;426:29–30.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hooper, LV, Wong, MH, Thelin, A, Hansson, L, Falk, PG, Gordon, JI: Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine. Science 2001;291:881–884.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marlet, R: Program Specialization. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012).
An edited book
Modern Theories of Many-Particle Systems in Condensed Matter Physics. (Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012).843:
A chapter in an edited book
Schaathun, HG, Cohen, GD: A Trellis-Based Bound on (2,1)-Separating Codes. Cryptography and Coding: 10th IMA International Conference, Cirencester, UK, December 19-21, 2005 Proceedings 2005;59–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Blog post
Fang, J: Mysterious Plumes On Mars Baffle Astronomers. IFLScience 2015;at <>.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Performance Appraisal Information From Selected Federal Agencies. (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1985).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, C: How Are Nonresident African American Fathers Involved in Their Children’s Academic Success? 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J: One Lesson for d’Arnaud: Learning Not to Throw With ‘Too Much Arm.’ New York Times 2017;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
AbbreviationJ. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg.
ISSN (print)1067-151X
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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