How to format your references using the Journal of Taibah University for Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Taibah University for Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Macilwain, Inadequate optics “threat to US laser facility,” Nature. 403 (2000) 120.
A journal article with 2 authors
K.J. Willis, R.J. Whittaker, Ecology. Species diversity--scale matters, Science. 295 (2002) 1245–1248.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Kellis, B.W. Birren, E.S. Lander, Proof and evolutionary analysis of ancient genome duplication in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Nature. 428 (2004) 617–624.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.J. Walmsley, S.K.T. Ooi, L.F. Reynolds, S.H. Smith, S. Ruf, A. Mathiot, L. Vanes, D.A. Williams, M.P. Cancro, V.L.J. Tybulewicz, Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling, Science. 302 (2003) 459–462.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.R. Petrucelli, Detecting Fraud in Organizations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
P. Massart, Concentration Inequalities and Model Selection: Ecole d’Eté de Probabilités de Saint-Flour XXXIII - 2003, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
E.A. Schnidman, W.D. MacMillan, Centralization: The Rise of Technocracy, in: W.D. MacMillan (Ed.), How the Fed Moves Markets: Central Bank Analysis for the Modern Era, Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 2016: pp. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Taibah University for Science.

Blog post
R. Andrews, This Volcano’s Lava Is So Cold You Can Fall In And Survive, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Student Loans: Direct Loans Could Save Money and Simplify Program Administration, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.J. Neal, Prehospital Patient Triage in Mass Casualty Incidents: An engineering management analysis and prototype strategy recommendation, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Powell, Scaling Past Death, New York Times. (2017) SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Taibah University for Science
AbbreviationJ. Taibah Univ. SCI
ISSN (print)1658-3655

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