How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Mining citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Mining. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reitz, S. R. (2007). Ecology. Invasion of the whiteflies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5857), 1733–1734.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rybczynski, N., & Reisz, R. R. (2001). Earliest evidence for efficient oral processing in a terrestrial herbivore. Nature, 411(6838), 684–687.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berger, G., Graef, F., & Pfeffer, H. (2013). Glyphosate applications on arable fields considerably coincide with migrating amphibians. Scientific Reports, 3, 2622.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Leigh, D. A., Wong, J. K. Y., Dehez, F., & Zerbetto, F. (2003). Unidirectional rotation in a mechanically interlocked molecular rotor. Nature, 424(6945), 174–179.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Free, M. L. (2015). CBT and Christianity. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Reinhartz-Berger, I., Sturm, A., Clark, T., Cohen, S., & Bettin, J. (Eds.). (2013). Domain Engineering: Product Lines, Languages, and Conceptual Models. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blakeley, M., Gilboa, A. J. K., Habash, J., Helliwell, J. R., Myles, D., & Raftery, J. (2006). Neutron Protein Crystallography: Technical Aspects and Some Case Studies at Current Capabilities and Beyond. In T. Gutberlet & J. Katsaras (Eds.), Neutron Scattering in Biology: Techniques and Applications (pp. 63–72). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Mining.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, June 22). How Eyespots Showed Up On Butterfly Wings. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). High-Containment Laboratories: Recent Incidents of Biosafety Lapses (GAO-14-785T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betito, J.-J. H. (2012). Improving the well-being of Filipino homebound adults through religious involvement, education, and socialization: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, July 17). Judges of a Graceful Sport, Caught in a Clumsy Cheating Scandal. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reitz, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Reitz, 2007; Rybczynski & Reisz, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rybczynski & Reisz, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Berger et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Leigh et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Mining
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Min.
ISSN (print)2300-3960

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