How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Mining citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Mining. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stirling, C. H. (2012). Geochemistry. Keeping time with Earth’s heaviest element. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6076), 1585–1586.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, J.-X., & Xie, X. S. (2015). Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine. Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6264), aaa8870.
A journal article with 3 authors
Khanna, K. M., McNamara, J. T., & Lefrançois, L. (2007). In situ imaging of the endogenous CD8 T cell response to infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5847), 116–120.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gilbert, D. T., Killingsworth, M. A., Eyre, R. N., & Wilson, T. D. (2009). The surprising power of neighborly advice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5921), 1617–1619.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton, W. (2011). E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA, USA: Pfeiffer.
An edited book
Korogodina, V. L., Mothersill, C. E., Inge-Vechtomov, S. G., & Seymour, C. B. (Eds.). (2016). Genetics, Evolution and Radiation: Crossing Borders, The Interdisciplinary Legacy of Nikolay W. Timofeeff-Ressovsky. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Madea, B., Noeker, M., & Franke, I. (2011). Child abuse — some aspects for neurosurgeons. In J. D. Pickard, N. Akalan, V. Benes, C. D. Rocco, V. V. Dolenc, J. L. Antunes, … M. Sindou (Eds.), Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery (pp. 79–135). Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Mining.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, August 31). DNA Reveals The Genetic History Of The Black Death Bacteria. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Law Enforcement: Information on the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Gang Reporting, Evaluation, and Tracking System (No. T-GGD-92-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Busalacchi, N. M. (2013). Access to healthcare: Disparities between the non-elderly adult population (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (1972, December 10). Is Anybody Here from Albion, Nebraska ? Is Everybody?; Albion, Nebraska -- Ta Dum! -- Celebrates in Great Plains Style. New York Times, p. TRAVEL AND RESORTSXX1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stirling, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng & Xie, 2015; Stirling, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng & Xie, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Khanna, McNamara, & Lefrançois, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gilbert, Killingsworth, Eyre, & Wilson, 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Mining
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Min.
ISSN (print)2300-3960

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