How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Mining citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Mining. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kirchman, D. (2009). Journal club. A microbial ecologist learns something new from an old-fashioned study. Nature, 459(7243), 13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tregenza, T., & Wedell, N. (2002). Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature, 415(6867), 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kolodner, R. D., Cleveland, D. W., & Putnam, C. D. (2011). Cancer. Aneuploidy drives a mutator phenotype in cancer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6045), 942–943.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Vetsch, M., Puorger, C., Spirig, T., Grauschopf, U., Weber-Ban, E. U., & Glockshuber, R. (2004). Pilus chaperones represent a new type of protein-folding catalyst. Nature, 431(7006), 329–333.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Koepsell, D. (2015). Who Owns You? John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Carter, C. B. (2013). Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering (M. G. Norton, Ed.; 2nd ed. 2013). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Margolis, R. L., & Rudnicki, D. D. (2008). Huntington’s Disease-Like 2. In R. H. Walker, S. Saiki, & A. Danek (Eds.), Neuroacanthocytosis Syndromes II (pp. 59–73). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Mining.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2017, March 15). Why Isn’t There A Real Life King Kong? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Battlefield Automation: Field Artillery Data Systems Acquisition Problems and Budget Impacts (NSIAD-89-95BR). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ratzlaff, K. (2012). Dynamics of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in amphibians in the Rincon Mountains and Tucson, Arizona [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, May 24). Stewart And HBO Pull the Plug On a Project. New York Times, B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kirchman, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Kirchman, 2009; Tregenza & Wedell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tregenza & Wedell, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kolodner et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Vetsch et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Mining
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Min.
ISSN (print)2300-3960

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