How to format your references using the Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Quay, Climate change. Ups and downs of CO2 uptake, Science. 298 (2002) 2344.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.M. Waterhouse, R.P. Hellens, Plant biology: Coding in non-coding RNAs, Nature. 520 (2015) 41–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.C. Ince, L. Hatton, J. Graham-Cumming, The case for open computer programs, Nature. 482 (2012) 485–488.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.S. Masnadi, H.M. El-Houjeiri, D. Schunack, Y. Li, J.G. Englander, A. Badahdah, J.-C. Monfort, J.E. Anderson, T.J. Wallington, J.A. Bergerson, D. Gordon, J. Koomey, S. Przesmitzki, I.L. Azevedo, X.T. Bi, J.E. Duffy, G.A. Heath, G.A. Keoleian, C. McGlade, D.N. Meehan, S. Yeh, F. You, M. Wang, A.R. Brandt, Global carbon intensity of crude oil production, Science. 361 (2018) 851–853.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
L.J. Brillson, An Essential Guide to Electronic Material Surfaces and Interfaces, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
E.J. Reitz, Environmental Archaeology, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Bergweiler, Periodic Fatou Components and Singularities of the Inverse Function, in: G.A. Barsegian, H.G.W. Begehr (Eds.), Topics in Analysis and Its Applications, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.

Blog post
T. Hale, How To Watch The Delta Aquarid Meteor Shower Tonight, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Positive Train Control: Additional Oversight Needed As Most Railroads Do Not Expect to Meet 2015 Implementation Deadline, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B.C. Narayanan, Structure function diversity within the phosphoenolpyruvate mutase/isocitrate lyase superfamily as revealed by the enzymes oxaloacetate decarboxylase and 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Detrick, Et Al, New York Times. (2017) D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
AbbreviationJ. Pharm. Biomed. Anal.
ISSN (print)0731-7085
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Analytical Chemistry
Drug Discovery
Pharmaceutical Science

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