How to format your references using the Journal of South American Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of South American Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitzer, N.C., 2006. Electrical activity in early neuronal development. Nature 444, 707–712.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gratzer, W., Nathan, D.G., 2005. Obituary: Fred S. Rosen (1930-2005). Nature 435, 1044.
A journal article with 3 authors
Davies, A., Kemp, A.E.S., Pike, J., 2009. Late Cretaceous seasonal ocean variability from the Arctic. Nature 460, 254–258.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gabor, N.M., Zhong, Z., Bosnick, K., Park, J., McEuen, P.L., 2009. Extremely efficient multiple electron-hole pair generation in carbon nanotube photodiodes. Science 325, 1367–1371.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jarry, P., Beneat, J.N., 2016. Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Toebes, B., Ferguson, R., Markovic, M.M., Nnamuchi, O. (Eds.), 2014. The Right to Health: A Multi-Country Study of Law, Policy and Practice. T.M.C. Asser Press, The Hague.
A chapter in an edited book
Vasileva-Stojanovska, T., Trajkovik, V., 2014. Modeling a Quality of Experience Aware Distance Educational System, in: Trajkovik, V., Anastas, M. (Eds.), ICT Innovations 2013: ICT Innovations and Education, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Heidelberg, pp. 45–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2014. Bizarre Human Brain With No Wrinkles Discovered [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Procedures and Policies of the Energy Research and Development Administration (No. B-187621). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Birtler, E.R., 2014. Group therapy and knowledge of neuroplastic principles: The impact of health literacy on client locus of control in a therapy setting (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2016. Murray, on a High, Raises His Sights. New York Times B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitzer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gratzer and Nathan, 2005; Spitzer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gratzer and Nathan, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Gabor et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of South American Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. South Am. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0895-9811
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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