How to format your references using the Journal of South American Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of South American Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbert, N., 2011. Local benefits: The seeds of an economy. Nature 474, S18-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kulmala, M., Petäjä, T., 2011. Geochemistry. Soil nitrites influence atmospheric chemistry. Science 333, 1586–1587.
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggman, K.L., Helmstaedter, M., Denk, W., 2011. Wiring specificity in the direction-selectivity circuit of the retina. Nature 471, 183–188.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dodd, D., Spitzer, M.H., Van Treuren, W., Merrill, B.D., Hryckowian, A.J., Higginbottom, S.K., Le, A., Cowan, T.M., Nolan, G.P., Fischbach, M.A., Sonnenburg, J.L., 2017. A gut bacterial pathway metabolizes aromatic amino acids into nine circulating metabolites. Nature 551, 648–652.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shand, M.A., 2006. The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Pallotta, V., Soro, A., Vargiu, E. (Eds.), 2011. Advances in Distributed Agent-Based Retrieval Tools, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Deb, K., Lele, S., Datta, R., 2007. A Hybrid Evolutionary Multi-objective and SQP Based Procedure for Constrained Optimization, in: Kang, L., Liu, Y., Zeng, S. (Eds.), Advances in Computation and Intelligence: Second International Symposium, ISICA 2007 Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007 Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 36–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Evans, K., 2016. Optimism Significantly Cuts Risk Of Deadly Diseases [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Airport Privatization: Issues Related to the Sale or Lease of U.S. Commercial Airports (No. RCED-97-3). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davis, J.A., 2011. Demobilizing the Minors: Examining Compliance with International Child Soldiering Laws (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Belcher, D., 2014. Yuri Lyubimov, Experimental Director of the Russian Stage, Is Dead at 97. New York Times A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilbert, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbert, 2011; Kulmala and Petäjä, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kulmala and Petäjä, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Dodd et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of South American Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. South Am. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0895-9811
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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