How to format your references using the Journal of South American Earth Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of South American Earth Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spurgeon, D., 2003. Canada boosts spending on science. Nature 421, 880.
A journal article with 2 authors
Georgescu, R.E., O’Donnell, M., 2007. Structural biology. Getting DNA to unwind. Science 317, 1181–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Müller, K., Fedosov, D.A., Gompper, G., 2014. Margination of micro- and nano-particles in blood flow and its effect on drug delivery. Sci. Rep. 4, 4871.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Janecka, J.E., Miller, W., Pringle, T.H., Wiens, F., Zitzmann, A., Helgen, K.M., Springer, M.S., Murphy, W.J., 2007. Molecular and genomic data identify the closest living relative of primates. Science 318, 792–794.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Early, W.F., II, 2010. Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Manzini, R. (Ed.), 2012. Warehousing in the Global Supply Chain: Advanced Models, Tools and Applications for Storage Systems. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Simon, A., Davey, B., Flaiz, B., Karpathiou, V., Wickramasinghe, N., 2016. A Multi-centred Empirical Study to Measure and Validate User Satisfaction with Hospital Information Services in Australia and Germany, in: Wickramasinghe, N., Troshani, I., Tan, J. (Eds.), Contemporary Consumer Health Informatics, Healthcare Delivery in the Information Age. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 91–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Former NASA Engineer Plans To Plant 1 Billion Trees A Year Using Drones [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. National Assessment of Educational Progress: Its Results Need To Be Made More Useful (No. HRD-76-113). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tsang, S.D., 2012. The depth range of azimuthal anisotropy beneath Southern California via analyses of long-period Rayleigh-waves (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Centuries Later, Delivering a Sibling to Beethoven. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Messersmith, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Friedberg, 2003; Watson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Georgescu and O’Donnell, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Kono et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of South American Earth Sciences
AbbreviationJ. South Am. Earth Sci.
ISSN (print)0895-9811
ScopeEarth-Surface Processes

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