How to format your references using the Journal of Solid State Lighting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Solid State Lighting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curran DP (2008) Chemistry. Fluorous tags unstick messy chemical biology problems. Science 321:1645–1646
A journal article with 2 authors
Celi A, Tarruell L (2015) PHYSICS. Probing the edge with cold atoms. Science 349:1450–1451
A journal article with 3 authors
David C, Mortensen NA, Christensen J (2013) Perfect imaging, epsilon-near zero phenomena and waveguiding in the scope of nonlocal effects. Sci Rep 3:2526
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mal P, Breiner B, Rissanen K, Nitschke JR (2009) White phosphorus is air-stable within a self-assembled tetrahedral capsule. Science 324:1697–1699

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quinlan J, VanderBrug J (2016) Gender Lens Investing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
de Moura CA, Kubrusly CS (2013) The Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) Condition: 80 Years After Its Discovery. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Deb K, Lele S, Datta R (2007) A Hybrid Evolutionary Multi-objective and SQP Based Procedure for Constrained Optimization. In: Kang L, Liu Y, Zeng S (eds) Advances in Computation and Intelligence: Second International Symposium, ISICA 2007 Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 36–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Solid State Lighting.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Why Are Humans So Afraid Of Spiders? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Runyan TE (2017) A Machine Learning Approach to Quantifying Likely Locations of Gas and Gas Hydrate Accumulation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Drucker J, Lipton E, Haberman M (2017) Trump’s Family Still Benefiting From Businesses. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Solid State Lighting
AbbreviationJ. Solid State Light.
ISSN (online)2196-1107

Other styles