How to format your references using the Journal of Solid State Lighting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Solid State Lighting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greffet J-J (2005) Applied physics. Nanoantennas for light emission. Science 308:1561–1563
A journal article with 2 authors
Montagner JP, Ritsema J (2001) Geology. Interactions between ridges and plumes. Science 294:1472–1473
A journal article with 3 authors
Mathis D, Vence L, Benoist C (2001) beta-Cell death during progression to diabetes. Nature 414:792–798
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shi Z, Zhang Y, Cui X, et al (2014) High-temperature continuous-wave laser realized in hollow microcavities. Sci Rep 4:7180

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou C (2013) Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Turner RK, Schaafsma M (2015) Coastal Zones Ecosystem Services: From Science to Values and Decision Making. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Manfrino RB, Ortega JAG, Delgado RV (2015) Quadratic and Cubic Polynomials. In: Gómez Ortega JA, Valdez Delgado R (eds) Topics in Algebra and Analysis: Preparing for the Mathematical Olympiad. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 63–74

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Solid State Lighting.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) NASA Observatory Captures Stunning Solar Flare. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Federal Aviation Administration: Plan Still Needed to Meet Challenges to Effectively Managing Air Traffic Controller Workforce. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Denz TA (2012) Performance Evaluation of a Magnetically Enhanced Micro-Cathode Vacuum Arc Thruster. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Isherwood C (2017) A Puppet Musical Is Silly but Serious. New York Times C6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Solid State Lighting
AbbreviationJ. Solid State Light.
ISSN (online)2196-1107

Other styles