How to format your references using the Journal of Solid State Lighting citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Solid State Lighting. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker VR (2002) Earth sciences. The study of superfloods. Science 295:2379–2380
A journal article with 2 authors
Coe FL, Asplin JR (2010) Medicine. Stopping the stones. Science 330:325–326
A journal article with 3 authors
Laubach M, Wessberg J, Nicolelis MA (2000) Cortical ensemble activity increasingly predicts behaviour outcomes during learning of a motor task. Nature 405:567–571
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Belonoshko AB, Skorodumova NV, Rosengren A, Johansson B (2008) Elastic anisotropy of Earth’s inner core. Science 319:797–800

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Szeman I, O’Brien S (2017) Popular Culture. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hehn E (2005) Exchange Traded Funds: Structure, Regulation and Application of a New Fund Class. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu Z, Cao Z, Zeng DD (2013) An Analysis of Beijing HFMD Patients Mobility Pattern during Seeking Treatment. In: Zeng D, Yang CC, Tseng VS, et al (eds) Smart Health: International Conference, ICSH 2013, Beijing, China, August 3-4, 2013. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 24–30

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Solid State Lighting.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) How Many Colors Can You See In This Spiraling Optical Illusion? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) Highway Safety: NHTSA’s Activities Concerning State Motorcycle Helmet Laws. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blair GT (2014) The effects of a league guided sportsmanship program on the behaviors of youth sports athletes. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blinder A, Baker AL, David Goodman J (2014) Tracing Gun Used to Kill 2 Officers, Officials Wind Up in a Familiar Spot. New York Times A22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Solid State Lighting
AbbreviationJ. Solid State Light.
ISSN (online)2196-1107

Other styles