How to format your references using the Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kleinberg JM (2000) Navigation in a small world. Nature 406:845
A journal article with 2 authors
Vojvodic A, Nørskov JK (2011) Chemistry. Optimizing perovskites for the water-splitting reaction. Science 334:1355–1356
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraschiv-Ionescu A, Buchser E, Aminian K (2013) Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions. Sci Rep 3:2019
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ito A, Yamamoto Y, Sato M, et al (2014) Induction of functional tissue-engineered skeletal muscle constructs by defined electrical stimulation. Sci Rep 4:4781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu S (2011) Statistical Approach to Wall Turbulence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Webster HD (2009) Gliogenesis: Historical Perspectives, 1839–1985. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Nagata T, Takimoto M, Kambayashi Y (2013) Cooperatively Searching Objects Based on Mobile Agents. In: Nguyen NT (ed) Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence XI. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 119–136

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Sexist Peer Reviewer Suggests Study Needs Male Authors. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2008) Public Transportation: Improvements Are Needed to More Fully Assess Predicted Impacts of New Starts Projects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newberry GC (2014) Students’ experiences with simulation education. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2016) Radwanska Upset in Straight Sets. New York Times B12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology
AbbreviationJ. Solgel Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0928-0707
ISSN (online)1573-4846
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Ceramics and Composites
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

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