How to format your references using the Journal of Science Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Science Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, T. E. (2013). Cell biology. Rapid aging rescue? Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6138), 1299–1300.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cheng, Z., & Menees, T. M. (2004). RNA branching and debranching in the yeast retrovirus-like element Ty1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303(5655), 240–243.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bongard, J., Zykov, V., & Lipson, H. (2006). Resilient machines through continuous self-modeling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5802), 1118–1121.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Im, K., Jeong, D., Hur, J., Kim, S.-J., Hwang, S., Jin, K. S., et al. (2013). Robust analysis of synthetic label-free DNA junctions in solution by X-ray scattering and molecular simulation. Scientific reports, 3, 3226.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larrieu, N., & Varet, A. (2014). Rapid Prototyping of Software for Avionics Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bruckstein, A. M., Haar Romeny, B. M. T., Bronstein, A. M., & Bronstein, M. M. (Eds.). (2012). Scale Space and Variational Methods in Computer Vision: Third International Conference, SSVM 2011, Ein-Gedi, Israel, May 29 – June 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 6667). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Trebše, R., & Trampuž, A. (2012). The Definition of Prosthetic Joint Infections (PJI). In R. Trebše (Ed.), Infected Total Joint Arthroplasty: The Algorithmic Approach (pp. 23–30). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Science Teacher Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 31). Fanged Deer Spotted In Afghanistan. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Transportation Security Administration: TSA Executive Attrition Has Declined, but Better Information Is Needed on Reasons for Leaving and Executive Hiring Process (No. GAO-10-139). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krometis, L.-A. H. (2009). Microbial partitioning in urban stormwaters (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 23). A Yoga Manifesto. New York Times, p. ST1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Cheng and Menees 2004; Johnson 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cheng and Menees 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Im et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Science Teacher Education
ISSN (print)1046-560X
ISSN (online)1573-1847

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