How to format your references using the Journal of Science Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Science Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemker, K. J. (2004). Materials science. Understanding how nanocrystalline metals deform. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5668), 221–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chemla, D. S., & Shah, J. (2001). Many-body and correlation effects in semiconductors. Nature, 411(6837), 549–557.
A journal article with 3 authors
Miake, J., Marbán, E., & Nuss, H. B. (2002). Biological pacemaker created by gene transfer. Nature, 419(6903), 132–133.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Singh, R., Kaushik, S., Wang, Y., Xiang, Y., Novak, I., Komatsu, M., et al. (2009). Autophagy regulates lipid metabolism. Nature, 458(7242), 1131–1135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Featherstone, H., & Holt, E. (2011). Small Animal Ophthalmology. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sachse, F. B., & Seemann, G. (Eds.). (2007). Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart: 4th International Conference, FIHM 2007, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, June 7-9, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4466). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Renwick, R. (2016). Rarely Seen, Seldom Heard: People with Intellectual Disabilities in the Mass Media. In K. Scior & S. Werner (Eds.), Intellectual Disability and Stigma: Stepping Out from the Margins (pp. 61–75). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Science Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 10). Here be Dragons: the Supermassive Black Hole That’s Growing Impossibly Fast. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Campaign Finance Reform: Experiences of Two States That Offered Full Public Funding for Political Candidates (No. GAO-10-390). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heitz, S. L. (2017). A Mindfulness Approach to Help Teachers And Staff Provide Support to High School Students: A Self-Instructional Curriculum (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2000, October 8). Idling Buses Leave a Stain of Pollution on a Jewel of a Park. New York Times, p. 147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemker 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Chemla and Shah 2001; Hemker 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chemla and Shah 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Singh et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Science Teacher Education
ISSN (print)1046-560X
ISSN (online)1573-1847

Other styles