How to format your references using the Journal of Science Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Science Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chen, J. (2001). Smithsonian closure plan under fire. Nature, 410(6832), 1011.
A journal article with 2 authors
Noor, E., & Milo, R. (2012). Evolution. Efficiency in evolutionary trade-offs. Science (New York, N.Y.), 336(6085), 1114–1115.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xiao, S., Li, R., & Chen, M. (2013). Detecting sedimentary cycles using autocorrelation of grain size. Scientific reports, 3, 1653.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Lee, G., Abdi, K., Jiang, Y., Michaely, P., Bennett, V., & Marszalek, P. E. (2006). Nanospring behaviour of ankyrin repeats. Nature, 440(7081), 246–249.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denham, B. E. (2016). Categorical Statistics for Communication Research. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
DeJaeghere, J. G., Josić, J., & McCleary, K. S. (Eds.). (2016). Education and Youth Agency: Qualitative Case Studies in Global Contexts. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ito, K. (2007). Water Problem in PEMFC. In S. Basu (Ed.), Recent Trends in Fuel Cell Science and Technology (pp. 129–136). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Science Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, November 23). Dino-Killing Asteroid Impact Made 20-Kilometer-High Central Mountain Almost Instantly. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Information Technology: Continued Improvements in Investment Oversight and Management Can Yield Billions in Savings (No. GAO-11-511T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Copeland, E. J. (2010). A grant proposal for individuals with severe mental illness (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, September 5). A Juniors Defeat Doesn’t Dampen A Traveler’s Stay. New York Times, p. B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chen 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Chen 2001; Noor and Milo 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Noor and Milo 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lee et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Science Teacher Education
ISSN (print)1046-560X
ISSN (online)1573-1847

Other styles