How to format your references using the Journal of Science Teacher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Science Teacher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wiseman, H. (2015). Quantum physics: Death by experiment for local realism. Nature, 526(7575), 649–650.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pearson, B. J., & Doe, C. Q. (2003). Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila. Nature, 425(6958), 624–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saturno, W. A., Stuart, D., & Beltrán, B. (2006). Early Maya writing at San Bartolo, Guatemala. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5765), 1281–1283.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Zhang, L., Israel, C., Biswas, A., Greene, R. L., & de Lozanne, A. (2002). Direct observation of percolation in a manganite thin film. Science (New York, N.Y.), 298(5594), 805–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Drake, P. P., & Fabozzi, F. J. (2009). Foundations and Applications of the Time Value of Money. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bock, H. G., Phu, H. X., Kostina, E., & Rannacher, R. (Eds.). (2005). Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Processes: Proceedings of the International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, March 10–14, 2003, Hanoi, Vietnam. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker, J. E. (2014). Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. In M. Sardela (Ed.), Practical Materials Characterization (pp. 133–187). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Science Teacher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 11). Scientists Trace The Evolution Of Beer. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Joint Strike Fighter: Significant Challenges and Decisions Ahead (No. GAO-10-478T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Witt, S. R. (2017). A Study of the Relationship of Online Course Factors and Passing or Failing an Online Course (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis, S. H. (2014, January 7). Making the Restaurant Part of the Family. New York Times, p. D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wiseman 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pearson and Doe 2003; Wiseman 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pearson and Doe 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Science Teacher Education
ISSN (print)1046-560X
ISSN (online)1573-1847

Other styles