How to format your references using the Journal of Safety Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Safety Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stubbe, J. (2011). Biochemistry. The two faces of SAM. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6029), 544–545.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stern, S. A., & Weissman, P. R. (2001). Rapid collisional evolution of comets during the formation of the Oort cloud. Nature, 409(6820), 589–591.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sachs, J. P., Anderson, R. F., & Lehman, S. J. (2001). Glacial surface temperatures of the southeast Atlantic Ocean. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5537), 2077–2079.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Sartori, A. A., Lukas, C., Coates, J., Mistrik, M., Fu, S., Bartek, J., … Jackson, S. P. (2007). Human CtIP promotes DNA end resection. Nature, 450(7169), 509–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hooper, J., Zalewski, A., & Watanabe, E. (2013). Advanced Charting Techniques for High Probability Trading. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gonzalez, C., Nurse, C. A., & Peers, C. (Eds.). (2009). Arterial Chemoreceptors: Arterial Chemoreceptors (Vol. 648). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Baker, P., Dai, Z. R., Grabowski, J., Haugen, Ø., Schieferdecker, I., & Williams, C. (2007). Unit Level Testing. In Z. R. Dai, J. Grabowski, Ø. Haugen, I. Schieferdecker, & C. Williams (Eds.), Model-Driven Testing (pp. 51–61). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Safety Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, November 11). Decades-Old Mystery of “Frankenstein DNA” Solved. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Higher Education: Multiple Higher Education Tax Incentives Create Opportunities for Taxpayers to Make Costly Mistakes (No. GAO-08-717T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Newsome, G. A. (2009). Novel instrumentation and method development for a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2008, February 6). A Love Letter to Putin (But It’s Not Addressed to Him). New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stubbe, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Stern & Weissman, 2001; Stubbe, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stern & Weissman, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Sachs, Anderson, & Lehman, 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Sartori et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Safety Research
AbbreviationJ. Safety Res.
ISSN (print)0022-4375
ScopeSafety, Risk, Reliability and Quality

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