How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ploehn, H.J., 2015. Materials science: Composite for energy storage takes the heat. Nature 523, 536–537.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xavier, R.J., Podolsky, D.K., 2007. Unravelling the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 448, 427–434.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, D.G., Burdick, J.A., Langer, R., 2004. Materials science. Smart biomaterials. Science 305, 1923–1924.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, W., Tucker, A.E., Sung, W., Thomas, W.K., Lynch, M., 2009. Extensive, recent intron gains in Daphnia populations. Science 326, 1260–1262.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gup, B.E., 2011. Banking and Financial Institutions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Abramowicz, W., Alt, R., Franczyk, B. (Eds.), 2016. Business Information Systems: 19th International Conference, BIS 2016, Leipzig, Germany, July, 6-8, 2016, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Raghukumar, C., Ravindran, J., 2012. Fungi and Their Role in Corals and Coral Reef Ecosystems, in: Raghukumar, C. (Ed.), Biology of Marine Fungi, Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 89–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2014. Watch A Goblin Shark Take A Bite [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1984. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s First-Year Implementation of the Federal Manager’s Financial Integrity Act (No. NSIAD-84-100). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tang, D., 2009. Event detection in sensor networks (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stellin, S., 2014. Full Picture of Airlines’ Punctuality Is Elusive. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ploehn, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ploehn, 2015; Xavier and Podolsky, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xavier and Podolsky, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Li et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rural Stud.
ISSN (print)0743-0167
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles