How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stokstad, E., 2000. PALEONTOLOGY: Fossils Made to Order, Any Size. Science 288, 1729.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, E.A., Calderwood, D.A., 2007. Forces and bond dynamics in cell adhesion. Science 316, 1148–1153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fan, C., Li, J., Wang, L., 2014. Phase transitions, mechanical properties and electronic structures of novel boron phases under high-pressure: a first-principles study. Sci. Rep. 4, 6786.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mann, N.H., Cook, A., Millard, A., Bailey, S., Clokie, M., 2003. Marine ecosystems: bacterial photosynthesis genes in a virus. Nature 424, 741.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hites, R.A., Raff, J.D., 2012. Elements of Environmental Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Gibson, M.A., Lawson, D.W. (Eds.), 2014. Applied Evolutionary Anthropology: Darwinian Approaches to Contemporary World Issues, Advances in the Evolutionary Analysis of Human Behaviour. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Sugi, M., Murakami, H., Yoshimura, J., 2014. Mechanism of the Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Frequency Changes due to Global Warming, in: Mohanty, U.C., Mohapatra, M., Singh, O.P., Bandyopadhyay, B.K., Rathore, L.S. (Eds.), Monitoring and Prediction of Tropical Cyclones in the Indian Ocean and Climate Change. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 40–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Studies.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Yes, Africa Will Feed Itself Within The Next 15 Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2013. Education Research: Preliminary Observations on the Institute of Education Sciences’ Research and Evaluation Efforts (No. GAO-13-852T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adijanto, J., 2010. Metabolic acid transport in human retinal pigment epithelium (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J., 2017. Age Requirement At Chelsea Art Gallery: Over 60 Only. New York Times A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stokstad, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Evans and Calderwood, 2007; Stokstad, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans and Calderwood, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Mann et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rural Stud.
ISSN (print)0743-0167
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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