How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Streicker, D.G., 2013. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. From persistence to cross-species emergence of a viral zoonosis. Science 342, 1185–1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lubenov, E.V., Siapas, A.G., 2009. Hippocampal theta oscillations are travelling waves. Nature 459, 534–539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lam, E., Kato, N., Lawton, M., 2001. Programmed cell death, mitochondria and the plant hypersensitive response. Nature 411, 848–853.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cardillo, A., Gómez-Gardeñes, J., Zanin, M., Romance, M., Papo, D., del Pozo, F., Boccaletti, S., 2013. Emergence of network features from multiplexity. Sci. Rep. 3, 1344.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, C.J., Young, P.C., Chotai, A., 2013. True Digital Control. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Chen, L., Yung, M. (Eds.), 2010. Trusted Systems: First International Conference, INTRUST 2009, Beijing, China, December 17-19, 2009. Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fisch, M.J., 2009. Fatigue, in: Ettinger, D.S. (Ed.), Supportive Care in Cancer Therapy. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 87–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Study Finds Bullying Affects Mental Health More Than Child Abuse [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Transportation Infrastructure: Review of Project Selection Process for Five FHWA Discretionary Programs (No. RCED-98-14). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dodge, T., 2009. The effects of interactivity and visual realism on children’s cognitive empathy toward narrative characters (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker, J., 2016. Dear Diary (Volume 1 of 148). New York Times BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Streicker, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Lubenov and Siapas, 2009; Streicker, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lubenov and Siapas, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Cardillo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rural Stud.
ISSN (print)0743-0167
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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