How to format your references using the Journal of Rural Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rural Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Goldston, D., 2007. Small advances. Nature 450, 1141.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulin, A., Spradling, A., 2003. Chromatin loosening by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) at Drosophila puff loci. Science 299, 560–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y.G., Pagani, M., Liu, Z., 2014. Response to Comment on “A 12-million-year temperature history of the tropical Pacific Ocean.” Science 346, 1467.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stanhope, M.J., Lupas, A., Italia, M.J., Koretke, K.K., Volker, C., Brown, J.R., 2001. Phylogenetic analyses do not support horizontal gene transfers from bacteria to vertebrates. Nature 411, 940–944.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito, L.J., Jr., 2017. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hu, A., Apblett, A. (Eds.), 2014. Nanotechnology for Water Treatment and Purification, Lecture Notes in Nanoscale Science and Technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Plummer, J.D., 2012. Challenges in Defining and Validating an Astronomy Learning Progression, in: Alonzo, A.C., Gotwals, A.W. (Eds.), Learning Progressions in Science: Current Challenges and Future Directions. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 77–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rural Studies.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2014. Wolves Cooperate With Each Other, Dogs Form Hierarchies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. Information on the National School Safety Center (No. GGD-85-74). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Doddick, S., 2012. Noncontact 2D Plethysmography: A non-invasive technique for monitoring dynamic trends in a respiratory system (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M., Kulish, N., Anasagasti, S., 2017. For Migrants, Peril on 18 Wheels; For Smugglers, a Profit Machine. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Goldston, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Goldston, 2007; Tulin and Spradling, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tulin and Spradling, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Stanhope et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rural Studies
AbbreviationJ. Rural Stud.
ISSN (print)0743-0167
Geography, Planning and Development
Sociology and Political Science

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