How to format your references using the Journal of Risk Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. 2000. “NUCLEAR SCIENCE: DOE Drops Plan to Restart Reactor.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 290 (5497): 1666b–1667b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lescai, Francesco, and Marco Quarta. 2003. “Young Scientist: Italian Biotechnologists Organize.” Nature 425 (6958): 644.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ammon, Charles J., Hiroo Kanamori, and Thorne Lay. 2008. “A Great Earthquake Doublet and Seismic Stress Transfer Cycle in the Central Kuril Islands.” Nature 451 (7178): 561–565.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ashrafi, Kaveh, Francesca Y. Chang, Jennifer L. Watts, Andrew G. Fraser, Ravi S. Kamath, Julie Ahringer, and Gary Ruvkun. 2003. “Genome-Wide RNAi Analysis of Caenorhabditis Elegans Fat Regulatory Genes.” Nature 421 (6920): 268–272.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, Chris, and Darryl Meeking. 2013. How to Succeed at the Medical Interview. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Rajeshwar, Krishnan, Robert McConnell, and Stuart Licht, eds. 2008. Solar Hydrogen Generation: Toward a Renewable Energy Future. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rogers, E. Sally, and Kim L. MacDonald-Wilson. 2011. “Vocational Capacity among Individuals with Mental Health Disabilities.” In Work Accommodation and Retention in Mental Health, edited by Izabela Z. Schultz and E. Sally Rogers, 73–89. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “How The Bacteria In Our Gut Affect Our Cravings For Food.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Federal Short Takeoff and Landing Transport Programs: Status and Needs. PSAD-76-172. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Joseph, Shawn. 2009. “A Comprehensive Evaluation of a School System’s Grow Your Own Principal Preparation Program.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2002. “Some Merchants Tire of Going Hollywood.” New York Times, July 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service 2000; Lescai and Quarta 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lescai and Quarta 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ammon, Kanamori, and Lay 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ashrafi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk Research
AbbreviationJ. Risk Res.
ISSN (print)1366-9877
ISSN (online)1466-4461
ScopeStrategy and Management
General Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Social Sciences

Other styles