How to format your references using the Journal of Risk Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reed, John C. 2011. “Cancer. Priming Cancer Cells for Death.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6059): 1075–1076.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, Todd R., and Elizabeth A. Gerken. 2005. “Creation of Visible Artificial Optical Emissions in the Aurora by High-Power Radio Waves.” Nature 433 (7025): 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lewis, Simon L., David P. Edwards, and David Galbraith. 2015. “Increasing Human Dominance of Tropical Forests.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 349 (6250): 827–832.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hameed, Umar Farook Shahul, Jackwee Lim, Qian Zhang, Mariusz A. Wasik, Daiwen Yang, and Kunchithapadam Swaminathan. 2014. “Transcriptional Repressor Domain of MBD1 Is Intrinsically Disordered and Interacts with Its Binding Partners in a Selective Manner.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 4896.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ruiz, Jose-Luis. 2017. Supra-Gingival Minimally Invasive Dentistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Castoldi, Filippo, Davide Blonna, and Marco Assom, eds. 2015. Simple and Complex Fractures of the Humerus: A Guide to Assessment and Treatment. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lin, Pey-Chang Kent, and Sunil P. Khatri. 2014. “ATPG for Cancer Therapy.” In Logic Synthesis for Genetic Diseases: Modeling Disease Behavior Using Boolean Networks, edited by Sunil P. Khatri, 77–92. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk Research.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “The Elements Of Life Have Been Mapped In Our Galaxy For The First Time.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1984. [Better Guidance Would Improve ADP Evaluations in Support of the Federal Managers’ Financial Integrity Act of 1982]. 125080. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang, Nuo. 2015. “Computational Studies on Biomolecular Diffusion and Electrostatics.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, Ellen, and Sophia Kishkovsky. 2008. “Russian President Sends Obama Warning on European Missile System.” New York Times, November 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reed 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Reed 2011; Pedersen and Gerken 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Gerken 2005)
  • Three authors: (Lewis, Edwards, and Galbraith 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hameed et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk Research
AbbreviationJ. Risk Res.
ISSN (print)1366-9877
ISSN (online)1466-4461
ScopeStrategy and Management
General Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Social Sciences

Other styles