How to format your references using the Journal of Risk Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Biba, Erin. 2014. “Protection: The Sunscreen Pill.” Nature 515 (7527): S124-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Flowers, R. M., and K. A. Farley. 2013. “Response to Comments on ‘Apatite 4He/3He and (U-Th)/He Evidence for an Ancient Grand Canyon.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340 (6129): 143.
A journal article with 3 authors
Magavi, S. S., B. R. Leavitt, and J. D. Macklis. 2000. “Induction of Neurogenesis in the Neocortex of Adult Mice.” Nature 405 (6789): 951–955.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Plath, Kathrin, Jia Fang, Susanna K. Mlynarczyk-Evans, Ru Cao, Kathleen A. Worringer, Hengbin Wang, Cecile C. de la Cruz, Arie P. Otte, Barbara Panning, and Yi Zhang. 2003. “Role of Histone H3 Lysine 27 Methylation in X Inactivation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 300 (5616): 131–135.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larkin, Richard F., and Marie DiTommaso. 2015. Wiley Not-for-Profit GAAP 2015. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Liu, Derong, Cesare Alippi, Dongbin Zhao, and Amir Hussain, eds. 2013. Advances in Brain Inspired Cognitive Systems: 6th International Conference, BICS 2013, Beijing, China, June 9-11, 2013. Proceedings. Vol. 7888. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Stec, Maria. 2014. “Reflective Teaching in an English Primary Classroom.” In Studying Second Language Acquisition from a Qualitative Perspective, edited by Danuta Gabryś-Barker and Adam Wojtaszek, 61–70. Second Language Learning and Teaching. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk Research.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Was An Erection-Causing Venomous Spider Really Found In A German Shipping Container?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1990. Tax System Modernization: Status of IRS’ Input Processing Initiative. IMTEC-91-9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Courtney, Susan Jean. 2015. “A Sea of Voices: An Alchemical Journey Through Dissociation.” Doctoral dissertation, Carpinteria, CA: Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, James R. 2016. “Verdi’s Requiem, in All Its Theatricality and Resonance.” New York Times, November 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Biba 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Biba 2014; Flowers and Farley 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Flowers and Farley 2013)
  • Three authors: (Magavi, Leavitt, and Macklis 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Plath et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk Research
AbbreviationJ. Risk Res.
ISSN (print)1366-9877
ISSN (online)1466-4461
ScopeStrategy and Management
General Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Social Sciences

Other styles