How to format your references using the Journal of Risk Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ashworth, William J. 2004. “Metrology and the State: Science, Revenue, and Commerce.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5700): 1314–1317.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, Stuart F., and Kevin L. Brown. 2006. “Gold in Magmatic Hydrothermal Solutions and the Rapid Formation of a Giant Ore Deposit.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5797): 288–291.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schoener, Thomas W., Jonathan B. Losos, and David A. Spiller. 2005. “Island Biogeography of Populations: An Introduced Species Transforms Survival Patterns.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5755): 1807–1809.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xuan, Chao, Hui Li, Jin-Xia Zhao, Hong-Wei Wang, Yi Wang, Chun-Ping Ning, Zhen Liu, Bei-Bei Zhang, Guo-Wei He, and Li-Min Lun. 2014. “Association between MTHFR Polymorphisms and Congenital Heart Disease: A Meta-Analysis Based on 9,329 Cases and 15,076 Controls.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tschirhart, Mary, and Wolfgang Bielefeld. 2012. Managing Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Perotto, Silvia, and František Baluška, eds. 2012. Signaling and Communication in Plant Symbiosis. Vol. 11. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Li, Min, and Guiming He. 2006. “Fast Mode Decision Algorithm in H.263+/H.264 Intra Transcoder.” In Advances in Multimedia Information Processing - PCM 2006: 7th Pacific Rim Conference on Multimedia, Hangzhou, China, November 2-4, 2006. Proceedings, edited by Yueting Zhuang, Shi-Qiang Yang, Yong Rui, and Qinming He, 41–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk Research.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Why Tropical Birds Have Fewer Chicks Than Temperate Birds.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Federal Research: Super Collider--National Security Benefits, Similar Projects, and Cost. RCED-93-158. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuang, Shih-Ying Hazel. 2010. “‘And the War Came’: A Memorial to Devastated Lives.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum, William K., and Benjamin Mueller. 2015. “Escaped Killer Is Fatally Shot in New York.” New York Times, June 27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ashworth 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Ashworth 2004; Simmons and Brown 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Brown 2006)
  • Three authors: (Schoener, Losos, and Spiller 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xuan et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk Research
AbbreviationJ. Risk Res.
ISSN (print)1366-9877
ISSN (online)1466-4461
ScopeStrategy and Management
General Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Social Sciences

Other styles