How to format your references using the Journal of Risk Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cameron, Andrew. 2015. “Eric H. Davidson (1937-2015).” Nature 526 (7572): 196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rhoten, Diana, and Andrew Parker. 2004. “Education. Risks and Rewards of an Interdisciplinary Research Path.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5704): 2046.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poss, Kenneth D., Lindsay G. Wilson, and Mark T. Keating. 2002. “Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 298 (5601): 2188–2190.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Li, Youzhi, Xinsheng Chen, Yonghong Xie, Xu Li, Feng Li, and Zhiyong Hou. 2014. “Effects of Young Poplar Plantations on Understory Plant Diversity in the Dongting Lake Wetlands, China.” Scientific Reports 4 (September): 6339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, Joyce, and Rachel Roberts. 2015. Vital Signs for Nurses. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Asher, Jana, David Banks, and Fritz J. Scheuren, eds. 2008. Statistical Methods for Human Rights. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
McAndrew, Patrick. 2009. “What Is Needed For Global E-Learning in Higher Education.” In Comparative Information Technology: Languages, Societies and the Internet, edited by Donna Gibbs and Joseph Zajda, 49–64. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk Research.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Sierra Leone Releases Last Ebola Patient.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1973. Corrections and Pretrial Diversion Projects Funded by Grants From LEAA. B-171019. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schroeder, Sulana K. 2017. “Tau-Directed Immunotherapy for Alzheimer’s Disease.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cox, Rob, Lisa Lee, Fiona Maharg-Bravo, and George Hay. 2011. “Dunkin’ Offers A Bubble Lesson.” New York Times, July 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cameron 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Cameron 2015; Rhoten and Parker 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rhoten and Parker 2004)
  • Three authors: (Poss, Wilson, and Keating 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Li et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk Research
AbbreviationJ. Risk Res.
ISSN (print)1366-9877
ISSN (online)1466-4461
ScopeStrategy and Management
General Engineering
Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
General Social Sciences

Other styles