How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bayer, M. (2014). Botany. Patterning cues from the altruistic sibling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6180), 158–159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang, H.-I., & Zeng, F.-G. (2013). Reduced acoustic and electric integration in concurrent-vowel recognition. Scientific reports, 3, 1419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, P. A., Stone, D. A., & Allen, M. R. (2004). Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature, 432(7017), 610–614.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Alavi, A., Hood, J. D., Frausto, R., Stupack, D. G., & Cheresh, D. A. (2003). Role of Raf in vascular protection from distinct apoptotic stimuli. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5629), 94–96.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Eggert, H., & Kauschke, W. (2012). Structural Bearings. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG.
An edited book
Yeo, G. W. (Ed.). (2014). Systems Biology of RNA Binding Proteins (Vol. 825). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahmed, M., & Masaryk, T. J. (2007). Computerized Tomography. In G. H. Barnett (Ed.), High-Grade Gliomas: Diagnosis and Treatment (pp. 73–104). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, June 24). How Risky Are The World Economic Forum’s Top 10 Emerging Technologies For 2016? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Follow Through: Lessons Learned From Its Evaluation and Need To Improve Its Administration (No. MWD-75-34). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pookcharoen, S. (2009). Metacognitive online reading strategies among Thai EFL university students (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2009, October 16). A Different World Is Awaiting the U.S. New York Times, p. B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bayer 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bayer 2014; Yang and Zeng 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yang and Zeng 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Alavi et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Uncertainty
AbbreviationJ. Risk Uncertain.
ISSN (print)0895-5646
ISSN (online)1573-0476
Economics and Econometrics

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