How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wigley, T. M. L. (2006). A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5798), 452–454.
A journal article with 2 authors
West, S. A., & Gardner, A. (2010). Altruism, spite, and greenbeards. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5971), 1341–1344.
A journal article with 3 authors
Feinstein, N. W., Allen, S., & Jenkins, E. (2013). Outside the pipeline: reimagining science education for nonscientists. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6130), 314–317.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ni, C. Y., Murphy, M. P., Golde, T. E., & Carpenter, G. (2001). gamma -Secretase cleavage and nuclear localization of ErbB-4 receptor tyrosine kinase. Science (New York, N.Y.), 294(5549), 2179–2181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Archer, R. D. (2002). Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Rauscher, R. C. (2014). Brooklyn’s Bushwick - Urban Renewal in New York, USA: Community, Planning and Sustainable Environments. (S. Momtaz, Ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemaire, V., Salperwyck, C., & Bondu, A. (2015). A Survey on Supervised Classification on Data Streams. In E. Zimányi & R.-D. Kutsche (Eds.), Business Intelligence: 4th European Summer School, eBISS 2014, Berlin, Germany, July 6-11, 2014, Tutorial Lectures (pp. 88–125). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 6). The Smell Of Rain: How CSIRO Invented A New Word. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). Operations of and Outlook for the Transportation Trust Funds (No. T-RCED-90-78). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slade, M. R. (2008). The adaptive nature of organizational silence: A cybernetic exploration of the hidden factory (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, August 31). For Tax Reform Lessons, Congress Needn’t Look Far. New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wigley 2006).
This sentence cites two references (West and Gardner 2010; Wigley 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (West and Gardner 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Ni et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Uncertainty
AbbreviationJ. Risk Uncertain.
ISSN (print)0895-5646
ISSN (online)1573-0476
Economics and Econometrics

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