How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sultan, F. (2002). Analysis of mammalian brain architecture. Nature, 415(6868), 133–134.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pauluis, O., & Dias, J. (2012). Satellite estimates of precipitation-induced dissipation in the atmosphere. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335(6071), 953–956.
A journal article with 3 authors
Woodroffe, R., Hedges, S., & Durant, S. M. (2014). Ecology. To fence or not to fence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344(6179), 46–48.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kiss, I. Z., Rusin, C. G., Kori, H., & Hudson, J. L. (2007). Engineering complex dynamical structures: sequential patterns and desynchronization. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1886–1889.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, C. (2012). Mastering Elliott Wave Principle. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shapiro, C. J., & Harper Browne, C. (Eds.). (2016). Innovative Approaches to Supporting Families of Young Children. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Molnár, Z., López-Bendito, G., Blakey, D., Thompson, A., & Higashi, S. (2006). The Earliest Thalamocortical Interactions. In R. Erzurumlu, W. Guido, & Z. Molnár (Eds.), Development and Plasticity in Sensory Thalamus and Cortex (pp. 54–78). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 30). FDA Approves Double Chin Shrinking Drug. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). [Query Concerning VISTA Appropriation] (No. B-207343). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lee, Y. (2017). Lexical Stress Features Affecting the Recognition of English Loanwords in Korean by Native English Hearers (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2005, July 21). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Foreign Interference Condemned. New York Times, p. A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sultan 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Pauluis and Dias 2012; Sultan 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pauluis and Dias 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Kiss et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Uncertainty
AbbreviationJ. Risk Uncertain.
ISSN (print)0895-5646
ISSN (online)1573-0476
Economics and Econometrics

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