How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Uncertainty citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benjamin, S. (2000). QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: Single Photons. Science (New York, N.Y.), 290(5500), 2273–2274.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simmons, N. A., & Gurrola, H. (2000). Multiple seismic discontinuities near the base of the transition zone in the Earth’s mantle. Nature, 405(6786), 559–562.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vassilopoulos, G., Wang, P.-R., & Russell, D. W. (2003). Transplanted bone marrow regenerates liver by cell fusion. Nature, 422(6934), 901–904.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Metallo, C. M., Gameiro, P. A., Bell, E. L., Mattaini, K. R., Yang, J., Hiller, K., et al. (2011). Reductive glutamine metabolism by IDH1 mediates lipogenesis under hypoxia. Nature, 481(7381), 380–384.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, E. M. (2006). Advances in Thermal Design of Heat Exchangers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Taylor, L. D. (2010). Consumer Demand in the United States: Prices, Income, and Consumption Behavior. (H. S. Houthakker, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Chapovetsky, V., Gattegno, T., & Admon, A. (2007). Proteomics analysis of the developing fish oocyte. In P. J. Babin, J. Cerdà, & E. Lubzens (Eds.), The Fish Oocyte: From Basic Studies to Biotechnological Applications (pp. 99–111). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Uncertainty.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, March 30). Lack Of ‘Dark Matter’ In Early Galaxies Perplexes Astronomers. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Year 2000 Computing Crisis: The District of Columbia Remains Behind Schedule (No. T-AIMD-99-84). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kolaski, G. W. (2010). Cultural awareness and the U.S. military advisor in the Arab Middle East: A phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2001, January 7). Distance Learning: RussiaIs Reaching Out. New York Times, p. 4A28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benjamin 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Benjamin 2000; Simmons and Gurrola 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simmons and Gurrola 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Metallo et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Uncertainty
AbbreviationJ. Risk Uncertain.
ISSN (print)0895-5646
ISSN (online)1573-0476
Economics and Econometrics

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