How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Financial Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Financial Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Abbott, A. Cognition: The brain’s decline. Nature 2012, 492, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Screen, J.A.; Simmonds, I. The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification. Nature 2010, 464, 1334–1337.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behnia, K.; Balicas, L.; Kopelevich, Y. Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth. Science 2007, 317, 1729–1731.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Iess, L.; Folkner, W.M.; Durante, D.; Parisi, M.; Kaspi, Y.; Galanti, E.; Guillot, T.; Hubbard, W.B.; Stevenson, D.J.; Anderson, J.D.; et al. Measurement of Jupiter’s asymmetric gravity field. Nature 2018, 555, 220–222.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, A.W. Economics, Real Estate and the Supply of Land; Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford, UK, 2008; ISBN 9780470698860.
An edited book
Gomes, D.A. Regularity Theory for Mean-Field Game Systems; Pimentel, E.A., Voskanyan, V., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319389325.
A chapter in an edited book
Kiayias, A.; Pehlivanoglu, S. Pirate Evolution. In Encryption for Digital Content; Pehlivanoglu, S., Ed.; Advances in Information Security; Springer US: Boston, MA, 2010; pp. 171–197 ISBN 9781441900432.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Financial Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. Incredible Images Show Comet Breaking Apart On Doomed Journey Through The Solar System Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Highlights of an Expert Panel: The Benefits and Costs of Highway and Transit Investments; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aldaco, R. Latinas attainment of higher education: What factors contribute to their success? Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ryerson, J. University Presses. New York Times 2017, BR27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Financial Management
AbbreviationJ. Risk Fin. Manag.
ISSN (online)1911-8074

Other styles