How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Financial Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Financial Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Curchoe, C.L. The Power of Mentoring. Science 2015, 350, 478.
A journal article with 2 authors
Enquist, J.A., Jr; Stoltz, B.M. The Total Synthesis of (-)-Cyanthiwigin F by Means of Double Catalytic Enantioselective Alkylation. Nature 2008, 453, 1228–1231.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilson, R.I.; Turner, G.C.; Laurent, G. Transformation of Olfactory Representations in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe. Science 2004, 303, 366–370.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Okeoma, C.M.; Lovsin, N.; Peterlin, B.M.; Ross, S.R. APOBEC3 Inhibits Mouse Mammary Tumour Virus Replication in Vivo. Nature 2007, 445, 927–930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety; American Industrial Hygiene Association Continuous Monitoring for Hazardous Material Releases; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2009; ISBN 9780470925157.
An edited book
Holbrow, C.H. Modern Introductory Physics; Lloyd, J.N., Amato, J.C., Galvez, E., Parks, M.E., Eds.; Springer: New York, NY, 2010; ISBN 9780387790794.
A chapter in an edited book
Xiang, L. Simulation System of Examination Score Analysis Based on an Improved Apriori Algorithm. In Advances in Computer Science and Engineering; Zeng, D., Ed.; Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 19–25 ISBN 9783642279478.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Financial Management.

Blog post
Taub, B. Being Hungry May Affect Your Impulsivity And Decision-Making (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Early Childhood Programs: Promoting the Development of Young Children in Denmark, France, and Italy; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jaime, A.A. “Cockroach Centuries”: The Cockroach Image as the Conduit for the Marginalized Beat Woman and Artist in Elise Cowen’s Cockroach Poetry. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Silver-Greenberg, J.; Protess, B. Gun Control Groups Find a Wealthy Ally in Big Law. New York Times 2016, BU1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Financial Management
AbbreviationJ. Risk Fin. Manag.
ISSN (online)1911-8074

Other styles