How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Financial Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Financial Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Freeman, M.R. Specification and morphogenesis of astrocytes. Science 2010, 330, 774–778.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krasnopolsky, V.A.; Feldman, P.D. Detection of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere of Mars. Science 2001, 294, 1914–1917.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karsai, M.; Perra, N.; Vespignani, A. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4001.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhu, G.; Spellman, P.T.; Volpe, T.; Brown, P.O.; Botstein, D.; Davis, T.N.; Futcher, B. Two yeast forkhead genes regulate the cell cycle and pseudohyphal growth. Nature 2000, 406, 90–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allen, M.W. Michael Allen’s Guide to e-Learning; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2016; ISBN 9781119176268.
An edited book
Scientific Computing in Electrical Engineering SCEE 2008; Roos, J., Costa, L.R.J., Eds.; Mathematics in Industry; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010; Vol. 14; ISBN 9783642122934.
A chapter in an edited book
Raiser, K. Christianity and History. In Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: Major Texts on Religion; Raiser, K., Ed.; SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 36–48 ISBN 9783319037035.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Financial Management.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. SpaceX Has Released 3 Camera Views Of Its Latest Rocket Barge Landing Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office GAO Role in the Evaluation of Federally Funded Education Programs; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1972;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stroot, P.G. Novel Reverse Transcription Method Confirms Growth Inhibition of Bacteria Exposed to Domestic Wastewater. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati: Cincinnati, OH, 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O. Remembering ‘Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In.’ New York Times 2015, C29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Financial Management
AbbreviationJ. Risk Fin. Manag.
ISSN (online)1911-8074

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