How to format your references using the Journal of Risk and Financial Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Risk and Financial Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Okumura, M. Atmospheric chemistry. Just add water dimers. Science 2015, 347, 718–719.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohde, R.A.; Muller, R.A. Cycles in fossil diversity. Nature 2005, 434, 208–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Minto, C.; Myers, R.A.; Blanchard, W. Survival variability and population density in fish populations. Nature 2008, 452, 344–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Li, Y.; Balédent, V.; Barisić, N.; Cho, Y.; Fauqué, B.; Sidis, Y.; Yu, G.; Zhao, X.; Bourges, P.; Greven, M. Unusual magnetic order in the pseudogap region of the superconductor HgBa2CuO4+delta. Nature 2008, 455, 372–375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang, B.; Qiu, D. Sneak Circuits of Power Electronic Converters; John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2014; ISBN 9781118379950.
An edited book
Image Analysis and Recognition: 8th International Conference, ICIAR 2011, Burnaby, BC, Canada, June 22-24, 2011. Proceedings, Part II; Kamel, M., Campilho, A., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011; Vol. 6754; ISBN 9783642215957.
A chapter in an edited book
Husain, Z.; Dutta, M. Nabadiganta: Women Workers in Kolkata’s IT Sector. In Women in Kolkata’s IT Sector: Satisficing Between Work and Household; Dutta, M., Ed.; SpringerBriefs in Sociology; Springer India: New Delhi, 2014; pp. 75–96 ISBN 9788132215929.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Risk and Financial Management.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Major California Faults Ready To Rupture Available online: (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Telecommunications: Charges for Itemized Cellular Telephone Bills; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jeffries, R.E. An NMR-compatible bioartificial liver for metabolomic investigation of drug action. Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina: Chapel Hill, NC, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; Sophia Kishkovsky contributed reporting for this article 2nd Russian Jury Convicts a Physicist Who Was Acquitted of Spy Charges. New York Times 2004, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Risk and Financial Management
AbbreviationJ. Risk Fin. Manag.
ISSN (online)1911-8074

Other styles