How to format your references using the Journal of Rare Earths citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rare Earths. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber K. Biochemistry: A radical treatment. Nature. 2012;489(7417):S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Atatüre M, Morton JJL. Quantum information. A gem of a quantum teleporter. Science. 2014;345(6196):510-511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nicoll RA, Tomita S, Bredt DS. Auxiliary subunits assist AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Science. 2006;311(5765):1253-1256.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Conboy IM, Conboy MJ, Smythe GM, Rando TA. Notch-mediated restoration of regenerative potential to aged muscle. Science. 2003;302(5650):1575-1577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau D, Fatu A, Souchet D. Hydrodynamic Bearings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bock HG, Kostina E, Phu HX, Rannacher R, eds. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Complex Processes: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on High Performance Scientific Computing, March 6–10, 2006, Hanoi, Vietnam. Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Lorenzini C, Faita C, Barsotti M, Carrozzino M, Tecchia F, Bergamasco M. ADITHO – A Serious Game for Training and Evaluating Medical Ethics Skills. In: Chorianopoulos K, Divitini M, Baalsrud Hauge J, Jaccheri L, Malaka R, eds. Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2015: 14th International Conference, ICEC 2015, Trondheim, Norway, September 29 - Ocotober 2, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2015:59-71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rare Earths.

Blog post
Luntz S. Your Mood Can Affect Your Ability To See Color. IFLScience. Published September 8, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Desert Shield/Storm: U.S. Transportation Command’s Support of Operation. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bankas JK. CAFE—Community and Family Enrichment: Toward Community-Based Mental Health Support for Families. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker L. Developers Cater to Two-Wheeled Traffic in Portland, Ore. New York Times. September 21, 2011:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rare Earths
ISSN (print)1002-0721

Other styles