How to format your references using the Journal of Rare Earths citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Rare Earths. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kump LR. Reducing uncertainty about carbon dioxide as a climate driver. Nature. 2002;419(6903):188-190.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yanega GM, Rubega MA. Feeding mechanisms: Hummingbird jaw bends to aid insect capture. Nature. 2004;428(6983):615.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ohmoto H, Yamaguchi KE, Ono S. Questions regarding Precambrian sulfur isotope fractionation. Science. 2001;292(5524):1959.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zou L-N, Cheng X, Rivers ML, Jaeger HM, Nagel SR. The packing of granular polymer chains. Science. 2009;326(5951):408-410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flood JM. Practitioner’s Guide to GAAS 2014. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bonnin M. The Knee Joint: Surgical Techniques and Strategies. (Amendola A, Bellemans J, MacDonald S, Ménétrey J, eds.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Giusti L, Zancanaro M. What We Can Learn from Service Design in Order to Design Services. In: Zseby T, Savola R, Pistore M, eds. Future Internet - FIS 2009: Second Future Internet Symposium, FIS 2009, Berlin, Germany, September 1-3, 2009. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2010:46-56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Rare Earths.

Blog post
Davis J. New GM Rice Plant Could Increase Yield And Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Outlay Savings From Program Reductions and Terminations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nikolova S. Health insurance transitions of SCHIP-eligible children in response to higher public premiums. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. Claude Brown’s Harlem, Still on the Mind. New York Times. February 10, 2002:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Rare Earths
ISSN (print)1002-0721

Other styles