How to format your references using the Journal of Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colliex C (2015) Applied physics. Taking temperature at the nanoscale. Science 347:611–612
A journal article with 2 authors
Moskovitz C, Kellogg D (2011) Science education. Inquiry-based writing in the laboratory course. Science 332:919–920
A journal article with 3 authors
Budday S, Raybaud C, Kuhl E (2014) A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain. Sci Rep 4:5644
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Duan X, Huang Y, Agarwal R, Lieber CM (2003) Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers. Nature 421:241–245

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Etheridge D (2010) Excel® Data Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pentikousis K, Agüero R, García-Arranz M, Papavassiliou S (2011) Mobile Networks and Management: Second International ICST Conference, MONAMI 2010, Santander, Spain, September 22-24, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Shilev S (2013) Soil Rhizobacteria Regulating the Uptake of Nutrients and Undesirable Elements by Plants. In: Arora NK (ed) Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 147–167

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) Natural Selection Observed In Penguins For The First Time. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013) VA Education Benefits: VA Needs to Improve Program Management and Provide More Timely Information to Students. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Felice D (2013) A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Running Unopposed, Yet Firmly on Defensive. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1948-7894
ISSN (online)1948-7908
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles