How to format your references using the Journal of Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S (2012) Vaccines: The take-home lesson. Nature 484:S24-5
A journal article with 2 authors
Djupedal I, Ekwall K (2008) Molecular biology. The paradox of silent heterochromatin. Science 320:624–625
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang L, Baade D, Patat F (2007) Spectropolarimetric diagnostics of thermonuclear supernova explosions. Science 315:212–214
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Klironomos JN, Allen MF, Rillig MC, et al (2005) Abrupt rise in atmospheric CO2 overestimates community response in a model plant-soil system. Nature 433:621–624

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Myers FR (2009) Get the Job You Want, Even When No One’s Hiring. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Keshtgar M, Pigott K, Wenz F (2014) Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy in Oncology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Huang Y, Li P, Zhu Q (2013) Chinese Argument Extraction Based on Trigger Mapping. In: Zhou G, Li J, Zhao D, Feng Y (eds) Natural Language Processing and Chinese Computing: Second CCF Conference, NLPCC 2013, Chongqing, China, November 15-19, 2013, Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 41–49

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Up To One-Fifth Of The Population May Have A Mild Form Of Synesthesia. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee: IRAC Representatives Effectively Coordinate Federal Spectrum but Lack Seniority to Advise on Contentious Policy Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner G (2010) Falls among older adults 65 years and older. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
ADAM LIPTAK; Janet Roberts of The Times’s computer-assisted reporting unit contributed reporting for this series. She was assisted by Jack Styczynski, Anderson D, Amster L, et al (2005) To More Inmates, Life Term Means Dying Behind Bars. New York Times 11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1948-7894
ISSN (online)1948-7908
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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