How to format your references using the Journal of Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Manning CE (2011) Geochemistry. Sulfur surprises in deep geological fluids. Science 331:1018–1019
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang H-Y, Malbon CC (2003) Wnt signaling, Ca2+, and cyclic GMP: visualizing Frizzled functions. Science 300:1529–1530
A journal article with 3 authors
Schröter C, Kosma K, Schultz T (2011) CRASY: mass- or electron-correlated rotational alignment spectroscopy. Science 333:1011–1015
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Silevitch DM, Bitko D, Brooke J, et al (2007) A ferromagnet in a continuously tunable random field. Nature 448:567–570

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stuart B (2012) Forensic Analytical Techniques: Stuart/Forensic Analytical Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Atay FM (2010) Complex Time-Delay Systems: Theory and Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dabrowska C, Li M, Fan Y (2016) Apoptotic Caspases in Promoting Cancer: Implications from Their Roles in Development and Tissue Homeostasis. In: Gregory CD (ed) Apoptosis in Cancer Pathogenesis and Anti-cancer Therapy: New Perspectives and Opportunities. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 89–112

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) How To Predict The Ratio Of Males To Females In Wild Animals. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Internet Infrastructure: DHS Faces Challenges in Developing a Joint Public/Private Recovery Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gobas M (2012) Affiliate users policy: Solution to multiple ball field users in the city of Artesia. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Joy S (2014) Who’s That (Cool) Girl? New York Times E11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1948-7894
ISSN (online)1948-7908
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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