How to format your references using the Journal of Radiation Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Radiation Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Turner W (2014) Conservation. Sensing biodiversity. Science 346:301–302
A journal article with 2 authors
Aebersold R, Mann M (2003) Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422:198–207
A journal article with 3 authors
Stuphorn V, Taylor TL, Schall JD (2000) Performance monitoring by the supplementary eye field. Nature 408:857–860
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Achermann M, Petruska MA, Kos S, et al (2004) Energy-transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well. Nature 429:642–646

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chin DA (2006) Water-Quality Engineering in Natural Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Soell H (2014) Helmut Schmidt: Pioneer of International Economic and Financial Cooperation. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Stoeglehner G, Narodoslawsky M, Erker S, Neugebauer G (2016) Fields of Action for Integrated Spatial and Energy Planning. In: Neugebauer G, Erker S, Narodoslawsky M (eds) Integrated Spatial and Energy Planning: Supporting Climate Protection and the Energy Turn with Means of Spatial Planning. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Radiation Oncology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Watch What Happens When You Dissolve An Antacid In Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Federal Motor Carrier Safety: Modifying the Compliance, Safety, Accountability Program Would Improve the Ability to Identify High Risk Carriers. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reese SR (2012) Transitioning to the oboe: Methods and resources to assist in switching to the oboe from other woodwind instruments. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmitt E (2017) U.S. Says Its ISIS Fight Isn’t Raising Civilian Risks. New York Times A5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Radiation Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Radiat. Oncol.
ISSN (print)1948-7894
ISSN (online)1948-7908
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles