How to format your references using the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Edgerton D. In praise of Luddism. Nature. 2011;471:27–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Read SM, Bacic T. Plant biology. Prime time for cellulose. Science. 2002;295:59–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Penmatsa A, Wang KH, Gouaux E. X-ray structure of dopamine transporter elucidates antidepressant mechanism. Nature. 2013;503:85–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Paytan A, Kastner M, Campbell D, Thiemens MH. Seawater sulfur isotope fluctuations in the Cretaceous. Science. 2004;304:1663–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Allen M. Foundations of Forensic Document Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Khare M. Artificial Neural Networks in Vehicular Pollution Modelling. Nagendra SMS, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nakano T. Neoliberalism and Conservatism. In: Fujii S, editor. Beyond Global Capitalism. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2015. p. 67–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 3D Printed Robot Takes Hoverbike Out For A Spin. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport Finance: Using Airport Grant Funds for Security Projects Has Affected Some Development Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Oct. Report No.: GAO-03-27.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Martinez C. An after-school program at the middle school level for at-risk youth [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. U.S. Loss Reveals a Shrinking Talent Gap. New York Times. 2010 Nov 9;B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
AbbreviationJ. Racial Ethn. Health Disparities
ISSN (print)2197-3792
ISSN (online)2196-8837
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles