How to format your references using the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Sekercioglu CH. Ecology. Functional extinctions of bird pollinators cause plant declines. Science. 2011;331:1019–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wei S, Li X. Differential effects of propranolol on conditioned hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization induced by morphine in rats. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3786.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mallatt J, Chen J, Holland ND. Comment on “A new species of yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution.” Science. 2003;300:1372; author reply 1372.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xie X, Li Y, Liu Z-Q, Haruta M, Shen W. Low-temperature oxidation of CO catalysed by Co(3)O(4) nanorods. Nature. 2009;458:746–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Klöpffer W. Verhalten und Abbau von Umweltchemikalien. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Fischer X. Research in Interactive Design: Proceedings of Virtual Concept 2005. Coutellier D, editor. Paris: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhang L, Wu Q, Qin B, Domingo-Ferrer J. Practical Privacy for Value-Added Applications in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. In: Xiang Y, Pathan M, Tao X, Wang H, editors. Internet and Distributed Computing Systems: 5th International Conference, IDCS 2012, Wuyishan, Fujian, China, November 21-23, 2012 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Tiny Monkey Causes Nationwide Blackout In Kenya [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Smart Highways: Challenges Facing DOT’s Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jun. Report No.: T-RCED-94-253.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Fox RN. Interpreting architecture: A Krauszian approach [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Mueller B, Baker AL. Steep Drop in Gang Violence Pushed City Shootings Below 1,000 in 2016. New York Times. 2017 Jan 4;A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
AbbreviationJ. Racial Ethn. Health Disparities
ISSN (print)2197-3792
ISSN (online)2196-8837
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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