How to format your references using the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Segre JA. MICROBIOME. Microbial growth dynamics and human disease. Science. 2015;349:1058–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kodra E, Ganguly AR. Asymmetry of projected increases in extreme temperature distributions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5884.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Della Negra M, Jenni P, Virdee TS. Journey in the search for the Higgs boson: the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Science. 2012;338:1560–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yarrow K, Haggard P, Heal R, Brown P, Rothwell JC. Illusory perceptions of space and time preserve cross-saccadic perceptual continuity. Nature. 2001;414:302–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Heimann RB, Lehmann HD. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
1. Bungenberg M, Herrmann C, Krajewski M, Terhechte JP, editors. European Yearbook of International Economic Law 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bingham GE, Okagaki L. Ethnicity and Student Engagement. In: Christenson SL, Reschly AL, Wylie C, editors. Handbook of Research on Student Engagement. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012. p. 65–95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Australia’s 2030 Climate Target Puts Us In The Race, But At The Back [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Mar. Report No.: 126497.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mocilnikar GE. Playing with movies: An examination of the interactions between music and film in “Fantasie for horn and film” [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Schwirtz M. Rikers Inmate Spent Brief Escape Hiding in Bushes. New York Times. 2017 Jul 27;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
AbbreviationJ. Racial Ethn. Health Disparities
ISSN (print)2197-3792
ISSN (online)2196-8837
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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