How to format your references using the Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kappeler PM. Evolution. Why male mammals are monogamous. Science. 2013;341:469–70.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Jiang C, Srinivasan SG. Unexpected strain-stiffening in crystalline solids. Nature. 2013;496:339–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. McDermott F, Mattey DP, Hawkesworth C. Centennial-scale Holocene climate variability revealed by a high-resolution speleothem delta 18O record from SW Ireland. Science. 2001;294:1328–31.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. De Nadal E, Zapater M, Alepuz PM, Sumoy L, Mas G, Posas F. The MAPK Hog1 recruits Rpd3 histone deacetylase to activate osmoresponsive genes. Nature. 2004;427:370–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Glover F, Klingman D, Phillips NV. Network Models in Optimization and their Applications in Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1992.
An edited book
1. Davidson S, Vallée M-A, editors. Hermeneutics and Phenomenology in Paul Ricoeur: Between Text and Phenomenon. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Khazai B, Daniell JE, Düzgün Ş, Kunz-Plapp T, Wenzel F. Framework for Systemic Socio-economic Vulnerability and Loss Assessment. In: Pitilakis K, Franchin P, Khazai B, Wenzel H, editors. SYNER-G: Systemic Seismic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment of Complex Urban, Utility, Lifeline Systems and Critical Facilities: Methodology and Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 89–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Underwater Microscope Provides New Views Of Ocean-Floor Sea Creatures In Their Natural Setting. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Readiness of Key State-Administered Federal Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Oct. Report No.: T-AIMD-00-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Gomez S. Support group for caregivers coping with their child diagnosed with autism: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Pilon M. Felix’s 200-Meter Win May Help Settle the 100. New York Times. 2012 Jul 1;SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
AbbreviationJ. Racial Ethn. Health Disparities
ISSN (print)2197-3792
ISSN (online)2196-8837
ScopeHealth Policy
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Sociology and Political Science

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