How to format your references using the Journal of Professional Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Professional Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lui, A. T. Y. (2009). Comment on “Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luo, C., & Ecker, J. R. (2015). Epigenetics. Exceptional epigenetics in the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6239), 1094–1095.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allard, P., Burton, M., & Muré, F. (2005). Spectroscopic evidence for a lava fountain driven by previously accumulated magmatic gas. Nature, 433(7024), 407–410.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Siretanu, I., Ebeling, D., Andersson, M. P., Stipp, S. L. S., Philipse, A., Stuart, M. C., van den Ende, D., & Mugele, F. (2014). Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces: a deep look into the Stern Layer. Scientific Reports, 4, 4956.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lacalle, D. (2014). Life in the Financial Markets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Doris, K. (2006). Wide-Bandwidth High-Dynamic Range D/A Converters (A. van Roermund & D. Leenaerts, Eds.; Vol. 871). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
D’Onofrio, M., Rampazzo, R., Zaggia, S., Longair, M. S., Ferrarese, L., Marziani, P., Sulentic, J. W., van der Kruit, P. C., Laurikainen, E., Elmegreen, D. M., Combes, F., Bertin, G., Fabbiano, G., Giovanelli, R., Calzetti, D., Moss, D. L., Matteucci, F., Djorgovski, S. G., Fraix-Burnet, D., … Tully, B. R. (2016). The Anatomy of Galaxies. In M. D’Onofrio, R. Rampazzo, & S. Zaggia (Eds.), From the Realm of the Nebulae to Populations of Galaxies: Dialogues on a Century of Research (pp. 243–379). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Professional Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, October 6). Alzheimer’s Is Slowly Giving Up Its Secrets – And ‘Risk Genes’ Are Just One Piece Of The Puzzle. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1983). U.S. Preparations for an International Conference on Broadcast Satellites (RCED-83-121). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O’Connell, A. M. (2008). Customer retention and leadership in the nonprofit healthcare organization [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (2009, January 24). Stranger in the Night. New York Times, CY3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lui, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lui, 2009; Luo & Ecker, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luo & Ecker, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Allard et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Siretanu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Professional Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Prof. Nurs.
ISSN (print)8755-7223
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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