How to format your references using the Journal of Professional Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Professional Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harnad, S. (2001). The self-archiving initiative. Nature, 410(6832), 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mulcahy, N. J., & Call, J. (2006). Apes save tools for future use. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5776), 1038–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tong, S., Meagher, S., & Vollenhoven, B. (2002). Sonography: dizygotic twin survival in early pregnancy. Nature, 416(6877), 142.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kitchen, D., Richardella, A., Tang, J.-M., Flatté, M. E., & Yazdani, A. (2006). Atom-by-atom substitution of Mn in GaAs and visualization of their hole-mediated interactions. Nature, 442(7101), 436–439.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knudsen, S. (2005). Cancer Diagnostics with DNA Microarrays. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Santos, J. E. (2016). Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics (P. M. Gauzellino, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Teng, T. T., & Low, L. W. (2012). Removal of Dyes and Pigments from Industrial Effluents. In S. K. Sharma & R. Sanghi (Eds.), Advances in Water Treatment and Pollution Prevention (pp. 65–93). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Professional Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 21). Fat And Sugar-Heavy Diet Harms Your Brain – And Makes You Keep On Eating. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Transportation Infrastructure: Department of Transportation Highway and Mass Transit Program Reauthorization Proposals (T-RCED-91-26). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harris, N. S. (2012). The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2006, March 30). Justices Hear Arguments Over Whether Foreigners Have Reciprocal Rights in the U.S. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harnad, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Harnad, 2001; Mulcahy & Call, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mulcahy & Call, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Tong et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kitchen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Professional Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Prof. Nurs.
ISSN (print)8755-7223
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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