How to format your references using the Journal of Professional Nursing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Professional Nursing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Baker, M. (2012). Functional genomics: The changes that count. Nature, 482(7384), 257, 259–262.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lau, H., & Maniscalco, B. (2010). Neuroscience. Should confidence be trusted? Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5998), 1478–1479.
A journal article with 3 authors
Discher, D. E., Mooney, D. J., & Zandstra, P. W. (2009). Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5935), 1673–1677.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kraus, H., Soltamov, V. A., Fuchs, F., Simin, D., Sperlich, A., Baranov, P. G., Astakhov, G. V., & Dyakonov, V. (2014). Magnetic field and temperature sensing with atomic-scale spin defects in silicon carbide. Scientific Reports, 4, 5303.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kassapoglou, C. (2013). Design and Analysis of Composite Structures. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Rana, A. Q. (2013). Neuroradiology in Clinical Practice (L. A. Zumo & V. Sim, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Compton, V., & France, B. (2012). Working With Technologists on Technology Curriculum Development and Implementation. In B. France & V. Compton (Eds.), Bringing Communities Together: Connecting Learners with Scientists or Technologists (pp. 73–88). SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Professional Nursing.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, November 25). Gamma-Ray Burst 130427A One Of The Brightest Ever Recorded. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Environmental Protection Agency: Difficulties in Comparing Annual Budgets for Science and Technology (T-RCED-99-120). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tzillah, A. (2009). The emissions of selected air pollutants from biodiesel fuel usage [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dorman, J. L. (2016, December 1). Andrew F. Smith on New York City’s Food Heritage. New York Times, TR2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Baker, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Baker, 2012; Lau & Maniscalco, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lau & Maniscalco, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Discher et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kraus et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Professional Nursing
AbbreviationJ. Prof. Nurs.
ISSN (print)8755-7223
ScopeGeneral Nursing

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