How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Zwerger W: Physics. Seeing the superfluid transition of a gas. Science 335:549–550, 2012
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hoshi T, Lahiri S: Cell biology. Oxygen sensing: it’s a gas! Science 306:2050–2051, 2004
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ehrlich PR, Kareiva PM, Daily GC: Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization. Nature 486:68–73, 2012
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Hakeda-Suzuki S, Ng J, Tzu J, et al: Rac function and regulation during Drosophila development. Nature 416:438–442, 2002

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Vona LW: Fraud Data Analytics Methodology. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017
An edited book
1. Arbarello E: Geometry of Algebraic Curves: Volume II with a contribution by Joseph Daniel Harris. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011
A chapter in an edited book
1. Savla K, Frazzoli E: On Endogenous Reconfiguration in Mobile Robotic Networks, in Chirikjian GS, Choset H, Morales M, et al (eds): Algorithmic Foundation of Robotics VIII: Selected Contributions of the Eight International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2009, pp 53–67

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E: We Could Have Lasers More Powerful Than Exploding Stars In Just 5 Years [Internet]. IFLScience , 2015[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: Mass Transit: FTA Needs to Provide Clear Information and Additional Guidance on the New Starts Ratings Process. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. DeLutis-Eichenberger AN: El proceso semiótico de un héroe decimonónico: Un estudio en torno a los “textos-tumbas” de Andrés Bello, 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hubbard B: Short-Term Cease-Fire in Yemen Appears Likely. New York Times A9, 2016

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

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