How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Dalton R: Action urged to combat killer algae. Nature 412:260, 2001
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wallenfang MR, Seydoux G: Polarization of the anterior-posterior axis of C. elegans is a microtubule-directed process. Nature 408:89–92, 2000
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Nolan D, James I, Mallal S: HIV/AIDS. HIV: experiencing the pressures of modern life. Science 307:1422–1424, 2005
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Chen S, Yoshita M, Ishikawa A, et al: Intrinsic radiative lifetime derived via absorption cross section of one-dimensional excitons. Sci Rep 3:1941, 2013

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shamsuddin M: Physical Chemistry of Metallurgical Processes. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2016
An edited book
1. Dashefsky A, Sheskin I (eds): American Jewish Year Book 2013: The Annual Record of the North American Jewish Communities. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2014
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kondapalli LA: Ovarian Tissue Cryopreservation and Transplantation, in Gracia C, Woodruff TK (eds): Oncofertility Medical Practice: Clinical Issues and Implementation. New York, NY, Springer, 2012, pp 63–75

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Taub B: Who Killed Ötzi The Iceman 5,300 Years Ago? [Internet]. IFLScience , 2016[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: Commercial Space: Industry Developments and FAA Challenges. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2016

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Chon JY: Coping as a mediator of the relation between teacher perceived stress and teacher-student relationships, 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C: From Town’s First Female Officer to County’s First Female Police Chief. New York Times WE5, 2007

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles