How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kaiser J: American Society of Gene Therapy meeting. Retroviral vectors: a double-edged sword. Science 308:1735–1736, 2005
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Marks TJ, Hersam MC: Materials science: Semiconductors grown large and thin. Nature 520:631–632, 2015
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pier H, Kapon E, Moser M: Strain effects and phase transitions in photonic resonator crystals. Nature 407:880–883, 2000
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Wu Q-S, Cao M-Q, Zou Y-N, et al: Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange. Sci Rep 4:5823, 2014

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Pettit J: The Final Frontier. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017
An edited book
1. Yona S, Stacey M (eds): Adhesion-GPCRs: Structure to Function. Boston, MA, Springer US, 2010
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gablina IF, Dobretsova IG, Popova EA: Biomineralization Processes During the Formation of Modern Oceanic Sulfide Ore and Ore-bearing Sediments, in Frank-Kamenetskaya OV, Panova EG, Vlasov DY (eds): Biogenic—Abiogenic Interactions in Natural and Anthropogenic Systems. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp 43–54

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E: If We Are To Find Life Beyond Earth, We Need To Be Explorers, Not Hunters [Internet]. IFLScience , 2015[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: Guide for Evaluating Automated Systems. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bustillo MF: Heart and Art: Post-adoption program: A grant proposal, 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW: New Puerto Rico Debt Relief Law Stirs Colonial Resentments. New York Times B1, 2016

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

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