How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Gewin V: Burst of energy. Nature 441:810–811, 2006
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Dawson TM, Dawson VL: Molecular pathways of neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Science 302:819–822, 2003
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ma L, Teruya-Feldstein J, Weinberg RA: Tumour invasion and metastasis initiated by microRNA-10b in breast cancer. Nature 449:682–688, 2007
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Nam S-W, Qian C, Kim SH, et al: C. elegans sensing of and entrainment along obstacles require different neurons at different body locations. Sci Rep 3:3247, 2013

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bittner M: Temporality: Universals and Variation. Oxford, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014
An edited book
1. Quang NP: Vector Control of Three-Phase AC Machines: System Development in the Practice. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2008
A chapter in an edited book
1. Gomez-Rodriguez MA, Sosa-Sosa VJ, Lopez-Arevalo I: Mobile Applications Middleware for File Swapping, in Obaidat MS, Tsihrintzis GA, Filipe J (eds): e-Business and Telecommunications: 7th International Joint Conference, ICETE 2010, Athens, Greece, July 26-28, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2012, pp 84–94

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Davis J: Cells Once Thought Only To Be Scaffolding May Be Keeping Time In Our Brains [Internet]. IFLScience , 2017[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: Business Systems Modernization: IRS Has Made Significant Progress in Improving Its Management Controls, but Risks Remain. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. De La Cruz CF: A program evaluation of a literacy initiative for students with moderate to severe disabilities, 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. MARY WILLIAMS WALSH; Compiled by DAVE ITZKOFF: U.S. to Take Over Orchestra’s Pensions. New York Times C3, 2011

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

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