How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koopman J: Epidemiology. Controlling smallpox. Science 298:1342–1344, 2002
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Freeman MP, Watkins NW: Auroral and space physics. The heavens in a pile of sand. Science 298:979–980, 2002
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Duplessy JC, Roche DM, Kageyama M: The deep ocean during the last interglacial period. Science 316:89–91, 2007
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Enache DI, Edwards JK, Landon P, et al: Solvent-free oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes using Au-Pd/TiO2 catalysts. Science 311:362–365, 2006

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Fabozzi FJ, Kothari V: Introduction to Securitization. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008
An edited book
1. Ishigatsubo Y (ed): Behçet’s Disease: From Genetics to Therapies. Tokyo, Springer Japan, 2015
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nadkarni V: Challenges to Interstate Security: China and India in the Twenty-First Century, in Noonan NC, Nadkarni V (eds): Challenge and Change: Global Threats and the State in Twenty-first Century International Politics. New York, NY, Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016, pp 71–103

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Andrews R: Why Are These Bald Eagles Caring For A Lonely Baby Hawk? [Internet]. IFLScience , 2017[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Key Issues Associated with the Transition to NextGen. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bremond DS: When women win: Prominent leadership traits that contributed to the successful election of women in California, 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Buckley C: Tycoon’s Claims Reverberate in China Despite Censorship and Thin Evidence. New York Times A9, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

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