How to format your references using the Journal of Clinical Oncology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Clinical Oncology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Webster PJ: Meteorology: Improve weather forecasts for the developing world. Nature 493:17–19, 2013
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang GX, Poo M-M: Requirement of TRPC channels in netrin-1-induced chemotropic turning of nerve growth cones. Nature 434:898–904, 2005
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim J-H, Yoneya M, Yokoyama H: Tristable nematic liquid-crystal device using micropatterned surface alignment. Nature 420:159–162, 2002
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Feng Y, Liu H, Luo W, et al: Covalent functionalization of graphene by azobenzene with molecular hydrogen bonds for long-term solar thermal storage. Sci Rep 3:3260, 2013

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Saadoun AP: Esthetic Soft Tissue Management of Teeth and Implants. West Sussex, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., 2012
An edited book
1. Klinger B: Enterprising Psychometrics and Poverty Reduction. New York, NY, Springer, 2013
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chessa M, Sabatini SP, Solari F, et al: A Quantitative Comparison of Speed and Reliability for Log-Polar Mapping Techniques, in Crowley JL, Draper BA, Thonnat M (eds): Computer Vision Systems: 8th International Conference, ICVS 2011, Sophia Antipolis, France, September 20-22, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2011, pp 41–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Blog post
1. Davis J: Scientists Identify The Genes Responsible For Cannabis’ Distinct Flavor [Internet]. IFLScience , 2017[cited 2018 Oct 30] Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office: HUD Urban Studies Fellowship Program. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1972

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Barrios G: Outreach program to address the unmet needs of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans: A grant proposal, 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kimmelman M: Brexit Clouds New Subway’s Promise. New York Times A1, 2017

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1, 2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Clinical Oncology
AbbreviationJ. Clin. Oncol.
ISSN (print)0732-183X
ISSN (online)1527-7755
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles