How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sloboda, J. 2008. “Science and Music: the ear of the beholder.” Nature, 454 (7200): 32–33.
A journal article with 2 authors
Addiscott, T., and P. Brookes. 2002. “Nitrogen cycle: what governs nitrogen loss from forest soils?” Nature, 418 (6898): 604; discussion 604.
A journal article with 3 authors
Conroy, C., P. G. van Dokkum, and J. Choi. 2015. “Ubiquitous time variability of integrated stellar populations.” Nature, 527 (7579): 488–491.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Aluwihare, A., C. Cohen-Tannoudji, A. Erzan, F. Jacob, J. Polanyi, P. van Dijk, E. Vesentini, and T. Wiesel. 2002. “In support of scientific exchange.” Nature, 417 (6890): 690.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray, K. A., and J. J. Paschkewitz. 2016. Next Generation HALT and HASS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
De Ponte, F. S. (Ed.). 2012. Bisphosphonates and Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pedretti, E. 2012. “The Medium is the Message.” Understanding Interactions at Science Centers and Museums: Approaching Sociocultural Perspectives, E. Davidsson and A. Jakobsson, eds., 45–61. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. 2015. “Radio Telescope Shows Halos Are Common Around Spiral Galaxies.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Environmental Satellites: NOAA Needs to Ensure Its Timelines Are Accurate, Clear, and Fully Documented. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dodge, T. 2009. “The effects of interactivity and visual realism on children’s cognitive empathy toward narrative characters.” Doctoral dissertation. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. 2012. “Illinois Debt Takes Toll, Study Finds.” New York Times, October 25, 2012.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sloboda 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Addiscott and Brookes 2002; Sloboda 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Addiscott and Brookes 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Aluwihare et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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