How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Haag, A. L. 2007. “Algae bloom again.” Nature, 447 (7144): 520–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Theis, T. N., and P. M. Solomon. 2010. “It’s time to reinvent the transistor!” Science, 327 (5973): 1600–1601.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rees, M., B. Koppelman, and N. Davison. 2010. “Scientific steps to nuclear disarmament.” Nature, 465 (7296): 290–291.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kang, T.-W., S. W. Choi, S.-R. Yang, T.-H. Shin, H.-S. Kim, K.-R. Yu, I.-S. Hong, S. Ro, J. M. Cho, and K.-S. Kang. 2014. “Growth arrest and forced differentiation of human primary glioblastoma multiforme by a novel small molecule.” Sci. Rep., 4: 5546.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khan, R. M. 2013. Problem Solving and Data Analysis using Minitab. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Dervin, F., and H. Ragnarsdóttir (Eds.). 2014. Origins: A Sustainable Concept in Education. Transgressions, Cultural Studies and Education. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Ziegler, G. M., and T. Vogt. 2012. “Mathematics for the People.” Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics, E. Behrends, N. Crato, and J. F. Rodrigues, eds., 37–46. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Andrews, R. 2015. “Humans Have More ‘Plastic,’ Adaptable Brains Than Chimpanzees.” IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Reporting Critical Changes and Clarifying Leadership Responsibility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Acosta, J. 2013. “Building bridges: A specialized training program for professionals in school settings to address bullying in LGBTQ youth: A grant proposal.” Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland, J. 2017. “Life Among the Boldface Names.” New York Times, July 28, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Haag 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Haag 2007; Theis and Solomon 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Theis and Solomon 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Kang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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