How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Costandi, M. (2013). “Neurodegeneration: amyloid awakenings.” Nature, 497(7450), S19-20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ronald, P., and Leung, H. (2002). “The rice genome. The most precious things are not jade and pearls.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5565), 58–59.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ruby, J. G., Jan, C. H., and Bartel, D. P. (2007). “Intronic microRNA precursors that bypass Drosha processing.” Nature, 448(7149), 83–86.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kelly, P. N., Dakic, A., Adams, J. M., Nutt, S. L., and Strasser, A. (2007). “Tumor growth need not be driven by rare cancer stem cells.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5836), 337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Davison, M. (2011). Pharmaceutical Anti-Counterfeiting. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Heams, T., Huneman, P., Lecointre, G., and Silberstein, M. (Eds.). (2015). Handbook of Evolutionary Thinking in the Sciences. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Alwi, H., Edwards, C., and Tan, C. P. (2011). “Robust Fault Reconstruction using Observers in Cascade.” Fault Detection and Fault-Tolerant Control Using Sliding Modes, Advances in Industrial Control, C. Edwards and C. Pin Tan, eds., Springer, London, 99–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016). “See Inside A Hyperloop Pod For The First Time.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Issues Related to Determining How Best to Finance FAA. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hankins, S. (2010). “A policy analysis of the Americans with Disability Act of 1990.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. (2017). “A Household In Thrall To Tales Told.” New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Costandi 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Costandi 2013; Ronald and Leung 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ronald and Leung 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Kelly et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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