How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grotzinger, J. P. (2014). “Exploring martian habitability. Habitability, taphonomy, and the search for organic carbon on Mars. Introduction.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6169), 386–387.
A journal article with 2 authors
van Ee, R., and Anderson, B. L. (2001). “Motion direction, speed and orientation in binocular matching.” Nature, 410(6829), 690–694.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simpson, A. G. B., MacQuarrie, E. K., and Roger, A. J. (2002). “Eukaryotic evolution: early origin of canonical introns.” Nature, 419(6904), 270.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frei, R., Gaucher, C., Poulton, S. W., and Canfield, D. E. (2009). “Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes.” Nature, 461(7261), 250–253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuehni, R. G. (2004). Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Eggermont, J. J., Zeng, F.-G., Popper, A. N., and Fay, R. R. (Eds.). (2012). Tinnitus. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Jasperson, A. E., Kelley, C., and Bennett, K. (2016). “Commonsense Protections or Government Interference in Private Decisions? Competing Media Frames in the Battle Over Tennessee’s Abortion Amendment.” Communication and Midterm Elections: Media, Message, and Mobilization, J. A. Hendricks and D. Schill, eds., Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, 57–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015). “Pluto’s Moons Are In ‘Absolute Chaos.’” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Systemwide Education Reform: Federal Leadership Could Facilitate District-Level Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Racho, M. O. (2012). “Attributes of Asian American senior leaders who have retained their cultural identity and been successful in American corporations.” Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oren, M. B. (2017). “The Iran Deal Isn’t Worth Saving.” New York Times, A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grotzinger 2014).
This sentence cites two references (van Ee and Anderson 2001; Grotzinger 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (van Ee and Anderson 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Frei et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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