How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Robock, A. (2002). “Pinatubo eruption. The climatic aftermath.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1242–1244.
A journal article with 2 authors
Beagle, S. D., and Lockless, S. W. (2015). “Microbiology: Electrical signalling goes bacterial.” Nature, 527(7576), 44–45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, P.-Y., Weng, J., and Anderson, R. G. W. (2005). “OSBP is a cholesterol-regulated scaffolding protein in control of ERK 1/2 activation.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1472–1476.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ng, J., Nardine, T., Harms, M., Tzu, J., Goldstein, A., Sun, Y., Dietzl, G., Dickson, B. J., and Luo, L. (2002). “Rac GTPases control axon growth, guidance and branching.” Nature, 416(6879), 442–447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghiani, G., Laporte, G., and Musmanno, R. (2005). Introduction to Logistics Systems Planning and Control. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Azimova, S. S., and Vinogradova, V. I. (Eds.). (2013). Natural Compounds: Flavonoids. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Bas, P., Furon, T., Cayre, F., Doërr, G., and Mathon, B. (2016). “Secure Design.” Watermarking Security, SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering, T. Furon, F. Cayre, G. Doërr, and B. Mathon, eds., Springer, Singapore, 63–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016). “Brain Training – Why It’s No Walk In The Park.” IFLScience, IFLScience, <; (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Transportation Infrastructure: FHWA Should Assess and Compare the Benefits of Projects When Awarding Discretionary Grants. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McDuffie, C. A. (2017). “Melodies of intervention: Music therapy for transitional-age youth: A grant proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. (2017). “A Wolf Roaming the Vatican.” New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guzmán 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Barrangou 2014; Brody 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Beagle and Lockless 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Debnath et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

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