How to format your references using the Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cowburn, R. P. (2006). “Applied physics. Where have all the transistors gone?” Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5758), 183–184.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rivera, L. B., and Bergers, G. (2015). “CANCER. Tumor angiogenesis, from foe to friend.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 349(6249), 694–695.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, S., Ubel, P., and De Vries, R. (2009). “Pruning the regulatory tree.” Nature, 457(7229), 534–535.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gruene, P., Rayner, D. M., Redlich, B., van der Meer, A. F. G., Lyon, J. T., Meijer, G., and Fielicke, A. (2008). “Structures of neutral Au7, Au19, and Au20 clusters in the gas phase.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5889), 674–676.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gardner, S., and Birley, S. (2010). Blogging for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bernardo, M., and Johnsen, E. B. (Eds.). (2015). Formal Methods for Multicore Programming: 15th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, Communication, and Software Systems, SFM 2015, Bertinoro, Italy, June 15-19, 2015, Advanced Lectures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Vollweiler, J., and Zuccaro, G., Jr. (2006). “Staging of Esophageal Cancer.” Endoscopic Oncology: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and Cancer Management, D. O. Faigel and M. L. Kochman, eds., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016). “Borneo’s ‘Deep Skull’ Rewrites History Of Human Evolution.” IFLScience, IFLScience (Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Digests of Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Vol. II, No. 5. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sugawara, Y. (2013). “When the Spaniels conquered Central America: Academic English and first year composition instruction.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara, S. (2015). “Encountering Art at Every Bend.” New York Times, CT9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cowburn 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Cowburn 2006; Rivera and Bergers 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rivera and Bergers 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Gruene et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
AbbreviationJ. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste
ISSN (print)2153-5493
ISSN (online)2153-5515
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
Environmental Chemistry
Environmental Engineering
Waste Management and Disposal
Water Science and Technology

Other styles