How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paszkowski J. Epigenetics: The karma of oil palms. Nature 2015;525:466–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Engwerda CR, Good MF. Immunology. Platelets kill the parasite within. Science 2012;338:1304–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshimura K, Onda Y, Fukushima T. Sediment particle size and initial radiocesium accumulation in ponds following the Fukushima DNPP accident. Sci Rep 2014;4:4514.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kienast M, Steinke S, Stattegger K, Calvert SE. Synchronous tropical South China Sea SST change and Greenland warming during deglaciation. Science 2001;291:2132–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D. TKO Management! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Takahashi T, editor. Radiological Issues for Fukushima’s Revitalized Future. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Saakov VS, Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG. The Range of DSHO Application in Experiments with Pigments of Plants and Animals. In: Krivchenko AI, Rozengart EV, Danilova IG, editors. Derivative Spectrophotometry and PAM-Fluorescence in Comparative Biochemistry, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 479–605.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Diabetes.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Electric Eels Bend Their Body To Double Their Electric Shocks. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Comments on Recent GAO Report on its Enterprise Architecture Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Catalini M. Intrinsic rewards increase job performance within an organization. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum WK, Schwirtz M. Amid Rikers Chaos, Jails Chief Often Left Town. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Diabetes
ISSN (print)1499-2671

Other styles