How to format your references using the Canadian Journal of Diabetes citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Canadian Journal of Diabetes. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
García de Abajo FJ. Applied physics. Graphene nanophotonics. Science 2013;339:917–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang JB, Ferrell JE Jr. Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle. Nature 2013;500:603–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nielsen SB, Stephenson R, Thomsen E. Dynamics of Mid-Palaeocene North Atlantic rifting linked with European intra-plate deformations. Nature 2007;450:1071–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Etienne RS, Latimer AM, Silander JA Jr, Cowling RM. Comment on “Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot.” Science 2006;311:610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill TH. Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Hamby S. The Web of Violence: Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Wohed P, van der Aalst WMP, Dumas M, ter Hofstede AHM, Russell N. Pattern-Based Analysis of the Control-Flow Perspective of UML Activity Diagrams. In: Delcambre L, Kop C, Mayr HC, Mylopoulos J, Pastor O, editors. Conceptual Modeling – ER 2005: 24th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Klagenfurt, Austria, October 24-28, 2005. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Canadian Journal of Diabetes.

Blog post
Davis J. Ecotourism Could Be Changing Animals’ Behavior For The Worse. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Acquisition Workforce: DOT Lacks Data, Oversight, and Strategic Focus Needed to Address Significant Workforce Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monforton C. Evaluation of the impact of a mandatory safety training regulation on occupational injury and fatality rates among U.S. stone, sand and gravel miners. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Revisiting the Classics Of an Earlier Generation. New York Times 2013:E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCanadian Journal of Diabetes
ISSN (print)1499-2671

Other styles