How to format your references using the International Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams, J.U.: Genetics: Big hopes for big data. Nature. 527, S108-9 (2015)
A journal article with 2 authors
Roman, J., Palumbi, S.R.: Whales before whaling in the North Atlantic. Science. 301, 508–510 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Biggins, J.B., Onwueme, K.C., Thorson, J.S.: Resistance to enediyne antitumor antibiotics by CalC self-sacrifice. Science. 301, 1537–1541 (2003)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Berman-Frank, I., Lundgren, P., Chen, Y.B., Küpper, H., Kolber, Z., Bergman, B., Falkowski, P.: Segregation of nitrogen fixation and oxygenic photosynthesis in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Science. 294, 1534–1537 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kowalick, T.M.: Fatal Exit. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2004)
An edited book
Reich, S.: Genericity in Nonlinear Analysis. Springer, New York, NY (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Hill, K.M., Luft, J.A.: Exploring Beginning Teachers’ Content Knowledge. In: Luft, J.A. and Dubois, S.L. (eds.) Newly Hired Teachers of Science: A Better Beginning. pp. 57–74. SensePublishers, Rotterdam (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Nano Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Newly Discovered Dinosaur Had Neck Half The Length Of Its Body,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Transportation Security: Systematic Planning Needed to Optimize Resources. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (2005)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Builes, A.J.: Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador, (2015)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., Maheshwari, S.: Eyes Drift. Marketers Stick to TV, (2017)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Nano Letters
AbbreviationInt. Nano Lett.
ISSN (print)2008-9295
ISSN (online)2228-5326

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