How to format your references using the International Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benderly, B.L.: Not your father’s postdoc. Science. 308, 717–718 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyra, W., Kuchner, M.: Formation of sharp eccentric rings in debris disks with gas but without planets. Nature. 499, 184–187 (2013)
A journal article with 3 authors
Whiteman, G., Hope, C., Wadhams, P.: Vast costs of Arctic change. Nature. 499, 401–403 (2013)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rose, E.F., Shimizu, N., Layne, G.D., Grove, T.L.: Melt production beneath Mt. Shasta from boron data in primitive melt inclusions. Science. 293, 281–283 (2001)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waxman, A.B.: Rogues of Wall Street. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2017)
An edited book
Mehler, A., Kühnberger, K.-U., Lobin, H., Lüngen, H., Storrer, A., Witt, A. eds: Modeling, Learning, and Processing of Text Technological Data Structures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2012)
A chapter in an edited book
Fenner, S., Green, F., Homer, S., Zhang, Y.: Bounds on the Power of Constant-Depth Quantum Circuits. In: Liśkiewicz, M. and Reischuk, R. (eds.) Fundamentals of Computation Theory: 15th International Symposium, FCT 2005, Lübeck, Germany, August 17-20, 2005. Proceedings. pp. 44–55. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2005)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Nano Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Astronomers Discover The Oldest Known Star In The Universe,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Interstate Commerce Commission: Key Issues Need to Be Addressed in Determining Future of ICC’s Regulatory Functions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1994)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Primeaux, S.J.: The Role of Education, Empathy, and Psychological Flexibility in Implicit and Explicit Mental Health Stigma, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wells, L.: My Life in Pictures, (2005)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Nano Letters
AbbreviationInt. Nano Lett.
ISSN (print)2008-9295
ISSN (online)2228-5326

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