How to format your references using the International Nano Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Nano Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fukatsu, T.: Evolution. A fungal past to insect color. Science. 328, 574–575 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Katsir, Y., Marmur, A.: Rate of bubble coalescence following quasi-static approach: screening and neutralization of the electric double layer. Sci. Rep. 4, 4266 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Majumder, A., Ghatak, A., Sharma, A.: Microfluidic adhesion induced by subsurface microstructures. Science. 318, 258–261 (2007)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Poznanski, D., Chornock, R., Nugent, P.E., Bloom, J.S., Filippenko, A.V., Ganeshalingam, M., Leonard, D.C., Li, W., Thomas, R.C.: An unusually fast-evolving supernova. Science. 327, 58–60 (2010)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harris, M.: Inside the Crystal Ball. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ (2015)
An edited book
Papadopoulos, G.A., Badica, C. eds: Intelligent Distributed Computing III: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC 2009, Ayia Napa, Cyprus,October 2009. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2009)
A chapter in an edited book
Santos, M.M. dos, Matai, P.H.L. dos S., Messias, L.S.: Fuels: Analysis of Plant Performance and Environmental Impact. In: de Souza, G.F.M. (ed.) Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis. pp. 61–90. Springer, London (2012)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Nano Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: World’s Largest Solar Farm Goes Online In California,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Procurement: Opportunities to Improve Contract Management. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson, M.C.: Autonomy in occupational health nursing: An application of Abbott’s Theory of Professions, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S.: Tatiana Samoilova, 80, Soviet Movie Star, (2014)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Nano Letters
AbbreviationInt. Nano Lett.
ISSN (print)2008-9295
ISSN (online)2228-5326

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