How to format your references using the Journal of Polymers and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Polymers and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Roberts JW (2014) Molecular biology. Molecular basis of transcription pausing. Science 344:1226–1227
A journal article with 2 authors
Thomas GL, Thorne RE (2001) Night-time predation by Steller sea lions. Nature 411:1013
A journal article with 3 authors
Mashchenko S, Wadsley J, Couchman HMP (2008) Stellar feedback in dwarf galaxy formation. Science 319:174–177
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Folco L, Di Martino M, El Barkooky A, et al (2010) The Kamil Crater in Egypt. Science 329:804

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Larsen E, Aarts RM (2005) Audio Bandwidth Extension. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Kalet A, Chou CL (2014) Remediation in Medical Education: A Mid-Course Correction. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Foremski P, Grochla K (2015) LTE or WiFi? Client-Side Internet Link Selection for Smartphones. In: Gaj P, Kwiecień A, Stera P (eds) Computer Networks: 22nd International Conference, CN 2015, Brunów, Poland, June 16-19, 2015. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 43–53

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Polymers and the Environment.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Prehistoric Kangaroos Were Hop-Less, Walking Giants. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Advanced Airborne Command Post Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pan X (2008) Using Structural Information in Modeling and Multiple Alignments for Phylogenetics. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B (2017) The Irresistible Attraction of an Assault Rifle. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Polymers and the Environment
AbbreviationJ. Environ. Polym. Degrad.
ISSN (print)1566-2543
ISSN (online)1572-8900
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

Other styles