How to format your references using the Journal of Polymers and the Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Polymers and the Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2005) Malaysia plans “red book” in its attempts to go green. Nature 436:313
A journal article with 2 authors
Northrup AB, MacMillan DWC (2004) Two-step synthesis of carbohydrates by selective aldol reactions. Science 305:1752–1755
A journal article with 3 authors
Chang P, Jacobson MK, Mitchison TJ (2004) Poly(ADP-ribose) is required for spindle assembly and structure. Nature 432:645–649
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Mal P, Breiner B, Rissanen K, Nitschke JR (2009) White phosphorus is air-stable within a self-assembled tetrahedral capsule. Science 324:1697–1699

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen S, Huang P (2011) Principles of Tribology. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Lopes LS, Lau N, Mariano P, Rocha LM (2009) Progress in Artificial Intelligence: 14th Portuguese Conference on Artificial Intelligence, EPIA 2009, Aveiro, Portugal, October 12-15, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lim YAL, Mahdy MAK, Surin J (2013) Unravelling Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Southeast Asia. In: Lim YAL, Vythilingam I (eds) Parasites and their vectors: A special focus on Southeast Asia. Springer, Vienna, pp 77–102

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Polymers and the Environment.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Extinct Giant Elephant Genetics Prove There Are Actually Two Living African Species. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Electronic Government: Better Information Needed on Agencies’ Implementation of the Government Paperwork Elimination Act. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilson P (2015) A Case Study of the Efficacy of Middle College on Educational Advancement. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Judging Draws Renewed Scrutiny. New York Times B15

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Polymers and the Environment
AbbreviationJ. Environ. Polym. Degrad.
ISSN (print)1566-2543
ISSN (online)1572-8900
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Materials Chemistry
Polymers and Plastics

Other styles